When macrophages were infected with MS-G, expression of PKC-α was

When macrophages were infected with MS-G, expression of PKC-α was decreased as compared to uninfected and MS infected macrophages (Fig. 4A, 4B, 4D, 4E, 4F and 4G) confirming that PknG directs the downregulation of PKC-α by mycobacteria which supports our hypothesis that PknG mediated enhanced intracellular survival of mycobacteria involves inhibition of PKC-α. During Rv infection, the levels of pknG transcripts were increased by 32 fold as compared to extracellular mycobacteria (Fig. 4C) which reiterates their ability to affect mycobacterial survival. In normal macrophages phagocytosis of MS-G was reduced in comparison to MS, which was similar with

the reduced phagocytosis of MS by PKC-α deficient macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (Fig. 5A). Phagocytosis see more of MS-G was further reduced in PKC-α deficient macrophages (Fig. 5A) suggesting that, once MS starts expressing PknG

the behavior of MS-G, in terms of phagocytosis look similar in pattern with BCG (Fig. 6A). Moreover, survival of MS-G in normal macrophages mimics the survival of MS in PKC-α deficient macrophages which was higher than the survival of MS in normal macrophages (Fig. 5B). MS-G survives equally in normal and in PKC-α deficient macrophages (Fig. 5B). These observations further support the view that intracellular survival of mycobacteria involves the inhibition of PKC-α by mycobacterial PknG. Expression www.selleckchem.com/products/ag-881.html of PKC-α was decreased in macrophages expressing PknG (Fig. 6B and 6C) confirming that PknG mediated inhibition of PKC-α involves alteration with host cell pathway rather than mycobacterial pathway. PknG may modulate the host cell processes by phosphorylation of host cell molecule. these In a study, level of PKC-α was shown to be decreased by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation resulting in the degradation of PKC-α suggesting that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is also linked with the degradation of PKC-α [29]. Thus PknG may contribute to the downregulation of PKC-α by directly phosphorylating it. PknG neither phosphorylated (Fig. 6D) nor dephosphorylated PKC-α (Fig. 6E) neglecting the possibility of

involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mediated pathway in downregulation of PKC-α. Surprisingly, incubation of PKC-α but not PKC-δ with PknG resulted in the degradation of PKC-α (Fig. 6E). Blasticidin S nmr Besides auto-phosphorylation [30, 31], PknG is reported to catalyse self cleavage [31] which suggests the possibility of proteolytic degradation of PKC-α by PknG. PKC-δ was unaffected by PknG confirming the specifiCity of PknG for PKC-α. Incubation of macrophage lysate with PknG also resulted in specific degradation of PKC-α which further supports that PknG mediated downregulation of PKC-α may be direct and possibly does not require host or mycobacterial mediators (Fig. 6F). When immunoprecipitated PKC-α was incubated with PknG, PKC-α was specifically degraded by PknG treatment (Fig.

Bull Cancer 2011, 98:239–246 PubMed 24 Ang KK, Andratschke NH, M

Bull Cancer 2011, 98:239–246.PubMed 24. Ang KK, Andratschke NH, Milas L: Epidermal growth factor receptor and response of

head-and-neck carcinoma to therapy. Int J Radiat CBL0137 mw Oncol Biol Phys 2004, 58:959–965.PubMedCrossRef 25. Yang Q, Moran MS, Haffty BG: Bcl-2 expression predicts local relapse for early-stage breast cancer receiving conserving surgery and radiotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008, 115:343–348.PubMedCrossRef 26. Zerp SF, Stoter R, Kuipers G, Yang D, Lippman ME, Van Blitterswijk WJ, Bartelink H, Rooswinkel R, Lafleur V, Verheij M: AT-101, a small molecule inhibitor of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, activates the SAPK/JNK pathway and enhances radiation-induced apoptosis. Radiat Oncol 2009, 4:47.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declared that they have XAV-939 price no conflict of interest. Authors’ contributions XST and ZMS designed research; JYL, WJ, YYL and QY performed research; JYL, YYL analyzed data; JYL and WJ wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world, with about a quarter of all cases Kinase Inhibitor Library cost occurring in the developing countries. SCC accounts for nearly 90% of all

head and neck carcinomas [1]. Approximately, one-fourth of all head and neck cancers are laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). LSCC is a malignant tumor of laryngeal epithelial origin and the clinical symptoms usually depend on its original site and size [2, 3]. Although several cutting-edge treatment strategies have been developed for LSCC, no treatment could achieve a satisfactory therapeutic outcome and the mortality rate of LSCC is still high (5-year survival rate is 64%) [4]. Therefore, it is urgent to develop novel and valuable markers to distinguish patients with poor prognosis or at high risk of early recurrence and guide chemotherapy and radiotherapy [5]. Alpha B-crystallin (αB-crystallin) is a member of the small heat

shock protein (sHSP) family and acts as a molecular chaperone, by preventing the aggregation of denatured proteins after the exposure to stresses such as heat shock, radiation, oxidative stress and anticancer drugs [6]. Moreover, ectopic expression of αB-crystallin in diverse cell types confers protection against a variety of apoptotic stimuli, including TNF-α, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand Urease (TRAIL), etoposide and growth factor deprivation [7, 8]. It is believed that αB-crystallin can interact with different apoptotic proteins to regulate apoptosis [9]. Recent studies suggest that αB-crystallin is a prognostic marker for various types of solid tumors [10–12]. αB-crystallin may play a role in tumorigenesis by modulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [13, 14]. However, the expression and function of αB-crystallin in LSCC have not been determined. In this study, we examined the expression levels of αB-crystallin in LSCC tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues.

ElgT1 and ElgT2 may serve as a two-component ABC transporter, sim

ElgT1 and ElgT2 may serve as a two-component ABC transporter, similar to MibTU and CinTU, which are probably involved

in the export of microbisporicin and cinnamycin [28, 29]; however this function is uncommon in the maturation of lantibiotics. ElgC encodes a protein containing 454 amino acids, which shows strong homology to the lantibiotic cyclase, MibC, of Microbispora corallina NRRL 30420 (33% identity) [GenBank: ADK32556]. MibC is involved in the formation of (Me)Lan bridges in microbisporicin [28]. The amino acid sequences encoded by the lanC genes have some conserved structural motifs, including GXAHG, WCXG, and CHG, in which the cysteine and histidine residues are highly conserved [30]. The alignment of ElgC with several type AI lantibiotic Selleck Poziotinib synthetases showed that ElgC contains several conserved sequences, such as GVSHG (positions 244-248), WCYG (positions 316-319), and CHG (positions 366-368), wherein His247, Cys317, Cys366, and His367 are strictly conserved. These observations indicate that

ElgC is a lantibiotic synthetase that catalyzes the synthesis of Lan and MeLan residues. A large ORF upstream and overlapping elgT2 by 4 bp encodes a protein of 1037 amino acids. The putative protein ElgB shares 31% identity with MibB of M. corallina NRRL 30420 [GenBank: ADK32555] and 30% identity with SpaB of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 [GenBank: P39774]. The proteins MibB and SpaB are responsible for the dehydration of serine and threonine residues in R428 in vitro the propeptide to form the unsaturated amino acids of microbisporicin and subtilin, respectively [28, 31]. Thus, ElgB appears

to be a dehydratase involved in the process of maturation. Similarly, elgA encodes the prepeptide of the elgicins, with a length of 64 amino acids. No lantibiotics reported thus far share homology with ElgA, suggesting that the mature proteins derived from ElgA are novel lantibiotics. The alignment of the putative leader peptide of ElgA with those of other lantibiotics revealed the existence of a find more possibly conserved motif “”FDLD”" (Figure 1C), which resembles the “”FDLN”" motif in the leader peptide of type AI lantibiotics [32]. Considering that the elg gene cluster contains the lanB and lanC genes encoding the modified enzymes, it could be concluded that the elgicins are type AI lantibiotics. Glycogen branching enzyme The elg gene cluster lacks the immunity genes lanI and lanEFG. LanEFG acts as an ABC transporter for lantibiotic immunity; for example, NisEFG expels lantibiotic molecules that have entered the cytoplasmic membrane into the extracellular environment [33]. Considering the mechanism of LanEFG-imparted immunity, ElgT1T2 is likely to play a role in self-protection, in addition to that of secretion and transportation of the elgicins. The leader peptides of type AI lantibiotics are usually processed by a serine protease encoded by lanP, which is not found in the elg gene cluster. The leader peptide of ElgA may instead be processed by an intrinsic B69 serine protease.

The main motivation behind this study is the

The main motivation behind this study is the LY333531 solubility dmso fact that nanostructures will act as a second ARC layer with an effective refractive index so that the refractive index of the total structure will perform as a double-layer AR coating layer. The optical and electrical properties ofthe III-V solar cells with the above-proposed double-layer

AR coating in this study are measured and compared. Methods The epitaxial structure of the InGaP/GaAs/Ge T-J solar cells used in this study is shown in Figure 1. The structure was grown on p-type Ge substrates using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition system (MOCVD). During epitaxial growth, trimethylindium (TMIn), trimethylgallium (TMGa), arsine (AsH3), and phosphine (PH3) were used as source materials of In, Ga, As, and P, respectively, and silane (SiH4) and diethylzinc (DEZn) were used as the n-type and p-type doping sources, respectively. The epitaxial layers of the T-J solar cells were grown on a p-type Ge substrate at 650°C with a reactor pressure of 50 mbar [17]. After the epitaxial layers RXDX-101 cost were grown, the wafers were cleaned using chemical solutions of trichloroethylene, acetone, methanol, and deionized water and dried by blowing N2 gas. A back electrode Ti (500 Å)/Pt (600 Å)/Au (2,500 Å) was then deposited immediately on the cleaned p-type Ge substrate using an electron-beam evaporator. Metal was annealed at 390°C for 3 min in an H2 ambient for

ohmic contact formation. The front-side n-type contact was formed by deposition of Ni/Ge/Au/Ni/Au with a thickness of 60/500/1,000/400/2,500 Å. The 75-nm silicon nitride AR coating film was deposited using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system on the solar cell device. The shadow loss due to the front contacts was 6.22%, and the total area of the solar cell was 4.4 × 4.4 mm2 with Farnesyltransferase an illuminated active area of 0.125 cm2. After the device process was finished, a ZnO nanotube was grown using the hydrothermal method. The substrate was vertically positioned in a 60-mL

mixture with 40 mL of zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2‧6H2O) (0.025 mol/L) and 10 mL of hexamethenamine (C6H12N4 (0.025 mol/L)). The substrate was then placed into a metal can with a capacity of 100 mL. The metal can was MEK inhibitor sealed and heated at 90°C making it easy to fabricate over a large area. Therefore, the ZnO nanotube fabrication technology has a potential which can be applied to the commercial process for the solar cell industry. The surface morphology of the ZnO nanotube was characterized by a field-emission scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-4700I, Tokyo, Japan). The reflections of the samples were analyzed with an ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer using an integrating sphere. For solar cell measurement, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the samples were measured under a one sun AM1.5 (100 mW/cm2) solar simulator.

3%), emm75T25 (14 6%), emm28T28 (13 2%), emm6T6 (9 8%), emm12T12

3%), emm75T25 (14.6%), emm28T28 (13.2%), emm6T6 (9.8%), emm12T12 (6.8%) and emm11T11 (4.1%) which represented 87.8% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. High macrolide resistance rates were associated with the above emm/T types: emm75T25 (93.5%), emm4T4 (84.7%), emm11T11 (50%), emm28T28 (50%), emm6T6 (43.3%)

and emm12T12 (29.4%). In the present tetracycline-resistant see more population (61), 20 different emm/T types were identified (Table 3). emm77T28 (37.3%) was the main emm/T type associated with tetracycline resistance; all emm77T28 find more isolates detected over the 13 years of the study were resistant to this antibiotic. In the erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistant population population (19), 7 emm/T types were observed, the majority being emm11T11 (57.8%) (Table 3); indeed, 45.8% of all emm11T11 recovered from the initial GAS population (898) were co-resistant. The correlation between the different emm/T types and macrolide resistance genotypes is shown in Table 2. The mef(A)/msr(D) gene complex was the most common in almost all emm/T types, either alone or in combination with other genes. The mef(A)/msr(D) genotype was the most common in the emm1T1 (6/10), GSK3235025 nmr emm4T4 (62/116), emm6T6 (26/29)

and emm12T12 (10/20) types. The msr(D)/mef(A)/erm(A)(36/116) was the most common genotype among the emm4T4 (36/116) and emm75T25 (17/43) types. PFGE typing In the erythromycin-resistant population (295 isolates), 79 (26.8%) SmaI-restricted and 216 (73.2%) SmaI-non-restricted isolates were identified. SmaI-restricted isolates generated 30 pulsotypes with a similarity range of 38.8% to 94.7% (Figure 1). Their distribution by phenotype was: M (11 isolates),

cMLSB (58) and iMLSB (6). Figure 1 Sma I-pulsotypes, emm/ T PtdIns(3,4)P2 and phenotypes of erythromycin- and/or tetracycline-resistant S. pyogenes. The 216 SmaI-non-restricted isolates (Table 4) were typed with SfiI, generating 22 pulsotypes with a similarity range of 12.2% to 88.9% (Figure 2). The M phenotype (212 isolates) predominated over the cMLSB (2) and iMLSB (2) phenotypes. In addition, 11 different emm/T types were detected (Table 4) among 216 SmaI-non-restricted isolates, the most common being emm4T4 and emm75T25. All emm4T4 and all emm75T25 erythromycin-resistant isolates but one were SmaI non-restricted and had the M phenotype; together these accounted for 53.9% of the macrolide-resistant isolates in our study. Table 4 Distribution of emm /T types, phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant Sma I-non-restricted isolates emm T Phenotype No. of isolates Genotypes (no.

To receive more information about evolutionary relatedness of

To receive more information about evolutionary relatedness of strains from Belgium and France the MLVA data was analyzed taking into account the number of repeat differences (Additional file 1: Figure S1). Interestingly, Belgian strain PD 5737 and French strain PD 5749 clustered closer to ES2686.1 and CL01TF02 strains isolated in Spain during bacterial

canker outbreak in 2002–2003. Moreover, these four strains showed to have a more similar MLVA haplotype to the group of strains from recent Belgian Ferrostatin-1 datasheet outbreaks 2010–2012. Figure 3 Minimum spanning tree of 56 Cmm strains based on eight VNTR loci. Each circle represents an MLVA type with a size corresponding to the number of strains that share an identical MLVA type. MLVA PF 01367338 types connected by a thick solid line differ from one another by one VNTR locus, while MLVA types connected by a thin solid line differ by two VNTR loci. MLVA types that differ from each other by three, four or more VNTR loci are connected by dashed and dotted lines. MLVA types were distinguished to define clonal complexes and to group in zones MLVA types that differ from one another by at most two locus variants. Letters visible on each circle are corresponding to strains described in Table 1. CC-Clonal complex. Discussion and conclusion Over the last few decades, bacterial canker has been frequently detected in tomato production areas,

leading to substantial financial and economical losses. Only during the last three years several local outbreaks of Cmm were reported in Belgium. In some cases, reoccurring infections were detected in the primarily contaminated farms, suggesting a persistence of an initial infection source. Despite a quite frequent detection of tomato canker and wilting over in Belgian tomato production areas there is little known about the genetic diversity of Cmm strains which hinders the correct conclusions about the probable sources of epidemics and transmission routes of Cmm. This study is the first MLVA approach developed for efficient genotyping of Cmm strains. To date typing

of Cmm strains was performed by RAPD-PCR [6], BOX-PCR [8, 48], AFLP [6], PFGE [10] and MLST [7]. Despite the fact that some of these methods were found to have a good resolution most of them have limitations such as a poor interlaboratory portability or limited this website exchangeability of results that were generated on a specific machine or compared to an in-house database. Nowadays, fully sequenced genomes give a unique opportunity for a development of more robust and accurate typing methods such as MLVA. Its advantages, such as, high reproducibility, exchangeability of results and the possibility to add loci greatly facilitates epidemiological studies of economically important pathogens such as Cmm. In this work, Clav-VNTR5 showed to be the most polymorphic loci with five different alleles and the highest HGDI of 0.664.

It is susceptible to attack by many insect-pests, and more severe

It is susceptible to attack by many insect-pests, and more severely affected by the fruit and shoot borer (FSB). These insects effectively damage (60–70%) the crop even following the average 4.6 kg of insecticides and pesticides per hectare [2]. Therefore, to control the indiscriminate use of insecticides, the transgenic approach is being opted that is eco-friendly and shows promise to control the FSB infecting brinjal. The use of insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in the improvement of crop productivity via transgenic crop (Bt crop) VRT752271 mouse is being promoted in most cases. However, the potential risk associated with the impact of

transgenic crops on non-target microorganisms and flora and fauna in the environment, is still a matter of concern. Bt crops have the potential to alter the microbial community dynamics in the soil agro-ecosystem

owing to the release of toxic Cry proteins into the soil via root exudates [3], and through decomposition of the crop residues [4]. The available reports, however, are not consistent regarding the nature of interaction of transgenic crops with the native microbial community. Icoz and Stotzky [5] presented a comprehensive analysis of the fate and effect of Bt crops in soil ecosystem and emphasized selleck screening library for the risk assessment studies of transgenic crops. Phylogenetically, actinomycetes are the member of taxa under high G + C sub-division of the Gram positive Sotrastaurin bacteria [6]. Apart from bacteria and fungi, actinomycetes are an important microbial group known to be actively involved in degradation of complex organic materials in soils and contribute to the biogeochemical cycle [7]. The presence of Micromonospora in soils contributes to the production

of secondary metabolite (antibiotics) like anthraquinones [8], and Arthrobacter globiformis degrades substituted phenyl urea in soil [9]. Nakamurella group are known for the production of catalase and storing polysaccharides [10]. Thermomonospora, common to decaying organic (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate matter, are known for plant cell degradation [11]. Frankia is widely known for N2 fixation [12], Sphaerisporangium album in starch hydrolysis and nitrate reduction in soils [13], Agromyces sp. degrades organophosphate compounds via phosphonoacetate metabolism through catabolite repression by glucose [14]. Janibacter in rhizospheric soils, are widely known to degrade 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2- bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) [15], while Streptomyces for the production of chitinase as well as antibiotics [16]. These studies suggest that most of the representative genera of actinomycetes in the soil, contribute to maintenance of the soil fertility. Most studies on transgenic crops have been carried out on cotton, corn, tomato, papaya, rice, etc., with emphasis on protozoal, bacterial and fungal communities [5].

The degree of

The degree of GSK126 mouse modified DNA would

be expected to be higher in older mothers and subsequently imply an increased susceptibility to morbidity in the offspring, possibly including also bone quality. In order to establish and confirm our findings concerning the association between maternal age and bone mass in the offspring, further studies on the topic are required. There are some limitations in the present study. Firstly, there were some deficits in the medical birth register concerning maternal anthropometrics resulting in a markedly reduced number of subjects when adjusting for all possible confounders. This reduced the statistical power CB-839 of the analysis. Secondly, the association between maternal age and bone mass in male offspring is rather small and probably of limited clinical significance in itself. Since our reported results were derived from a cross-sectional association study, we are not able to delineate PF-562271 ic50 whether the found association between increasing maternal age and decreased aBMD in the offspring is possibly due to intra-uterine or from environmentally affected extra-uterine factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate that advancing maternal age

is associated with reduced bone mass in a large cohort of young adult male offspring, but additional studies are required to elucidate whether a high maternal age could increase the susceptibility of developing low bone mass and osteoporosis. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council, the Lundberg Foundation, and ALF/LUA grants from the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Conflicts of interest None. Open Access This article is TCL distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which

permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References 1. Statistics Sweden (2007) Tables on the population in Sweden 2006. Statistics Sweden, Stockholm 2. Fretts RC et al (1995) Increased maternal age and the risk of fetal death. N Engl J Med 333(15):953–957PubMedCrossRef 3. Luke B, Brown MB (2007) Elevated risks of pregnancy complications and adverse outcomes with increasing maternal age. Hum Reprod 22(5):1264–1272PubMedCrossRef 4. Hook EB (1981) Rates of chromosome abnormalities at different maternal ages. Obstet Gynecol 58(3):282–285PubMed 5. Yip BH, Pawitan Y, Czene K (2006) Parental age and risk of childhood cancers: a population-based cohort study from Sweden. Int J Epidemiol 35(6):1495–1503PubMedCrossRef 6. Ekeus C, Olausson PO, Hjern A (2006) Psychiatric morbidity is related to parental age: a national cohort study. Psychol Med 36(2):269–276PubMedCrossRef 7.

Samples were spun down and

Samples were spun down and pellets were resuspended in anti-NanA rabbit serum diluted 1:100 in PBS/BSA

and incubated at 4°C for 1 h (negative controls were incubated without antibody). After two washes with 1 ml of PBS, 100 μl of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-rabbit (1:64; Sigma-Aldrich) was added to bacterial pellets. The resuspensions were incubated at 37°C for 30 min and then washed twice in PBS. Samples were finally resuspended in 300 μl of paraformaldehyde 1% in PBS and subjected to flow cytometry (FACScan, Becton Dickinson, San Diego, CA). Statistical analysis was carried out by using two-tailed Student t test. Neuraminidase activity The neuraminidase activity was measured using the fluorogenic substrate 2′-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac) (M8639, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MLN2238 datasheet Miss.). The time dependence of the variation of fluorescence (λexcitation, 335 nm; λemission, 400 nm) in the presence of cell or enzyme samples was recorded with a EnVision multilabel plate reader (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, Mass.) using 50 μM 4MU-Neu5Ac in 10 mM MES buffer at pH 6.0, in a final reaction volume of 200 μl. S. pneumoniae FP65 was grown in CAT medium, containing alternatively glucose or N-acetylmannosamine as the carbon

source, respectively, for 18 hours at 37°C. The sample was prepared as follows; the culture was centrifuged at 10,000 × g (4°C) and the cell pellet washed once in an equal volume of 10 MES buffer pH GS-4997 supplier 6.0, centrifuged and resuspended at a final A600 = 0.4 in 10 mM MES pH 6.0. The method was initially optimized and calibrated using purified NanA neuraminidase of S. pneumoniae D39 produced

in E. coli (0.88 mg/ml) (data not shown). The activity was computed as the variation of fluorescence vs time using a linear regression eltoprazine of the data. In our conditions, 1 μg of purified NanA yielded a activity of 10,690 ΔF/min. Acknowledgements The work was in part funded by the European Commission grant PNEUMOPATH FP7-HEALTH-222983 and by Ricerca Regionale Toscana in Materia di Salute 2009–201. References 1. Kadioglu A, Weiser JN, Paton JC, Andrew PW: The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease. Nat Rev Microbiol 2008, 6:288–301.Pexidartinib PubMedCrossRef 2. King SJ: Pneumococcal modification of host sugars: a major contributor to colonization of the human airway? Mol Oral Microbiol 2010, 25:15–24.PubMedCrossRef 3. Camara M, Boulnois GJ, Andrew PW, Mitchell TJ: A neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae has the feature of a surface protein. Infect Immun 1994, 62:3688–3695.PubMed 4. Berry AM, Paton JC: Sequence heterogenicity of PsaA, a 37-kilodalton putative adhesin essential for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun 1996, 64:5255–5262.PubMed 5. McCullers JA, Bartmess KC: Role of neuraminidase in lethal synergism between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Infect Dis 2003, 187:1000–1009.

Mycoscience 41:61–78CrossRef Overton BE, Stewart EL, Geiser DM, W

Mycoscience 41:61–78CrossRef Overton BE, Stewart EL, Geiser DM, Wenner NG, Jaklitsch W (2006a) Systematics of Hypocrea citrina and allies. Stud Mycol 56:1–38PubMedCrossRef Overton BE, Stewart EL, Geiser DM (2006b) Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of nine species of Hypocrea with anamorphs selleck screening library assignable to Trichoderma section Hypocreanum. Stud Mycol 56:39–65PubMedCrossRef Packer L (2008) Phylogeny and classification of the Xeromelissinae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Colletidae) with special emphasis on the genus Chilicola. Syst Entomol 33:72–96 Petch T (1935) Notes on British Hypocreaceae. J Bot Lond 73:184–224 Petch

T (1937) Notes on British Hypocreaceae III. J Bot Lond 75:217–231 Petch T (1938) British Hypocreales. Trans Br Mycol Soc 21:243–305CrossRef Petrak F (1940) Mykologische Notizen XIII. Ann Mycol 38:181–267 Põldmaa K (1999) The genus Hypomyces (3-Methyladenine molecular weight Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and allied fungicolous fungi in Estonia 1. Species growing on aphyllophoralean basidiomycetes. Folia Cryptogam

Est Fasc 34:15–31 Põldmaa K, CFTR modulator Larsson E, Kõljalg U (1999) Phylogenetic relationships in Hypomyces and allied genera, with emphasis on species growing on wood-decaying homobasidiomycetes. Can J Bot 77:1756–1768CrossRef Rehm H (1905) Ascomycetes exs. Fasc. 34. Ann Mycol 3:224–231 Rifai MA (1969) A revision of the genus Trichoderma. Mycol Pap 116:1–56 Rifai MA, Webster J (1966) Culture studies on Hypocrea and Trichoderma II. Trans Br Mycol Soc 49:289–296CrossRef Rogerson CT, Samuels GJ (1993) Polyporicolous species of Hypomyces. Mycologia 85:231–272CrossRef Rogerson CT, Samuels GJ (1994) Agaricicolous species of Hypomyces. Mycologia 86:839–866CrossRef

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