T cell stimulator cells expressing

T cell stimulator cells expressing ABT-199 membrane-bound anti-CD3 antibodies at a high density induced moderate proliferation in human T cells even in the absence of human costimulatory molecules and as expected T cells activated with stimulator cells harbouring high levels of anti-CD3 in combination with human CD80 showed the highest proliferative response (Fig. 1C). To visualize the interaction of human T cells and stimulator cells, we performed co-culture experiments using CFSE-labeled T cells and CMTMR-labeled stimulator cells. Large clusters of T cells and stimulator cells expressing

CD80 can be observed whereas much smaller clusters are formed when T cells were activated by stimulator cells expressing anti-CD3 but no human costimulatory molecule

(Fig. 1D). T cell stimulator cells transduced to express different costimulatory molecules are excellent tools to compare these ligands regarding learn more their capacity to activate human T cells. We have generated stimulator cell lines retrovirally expressing different costimulatory molecules at high levels (Fig. 2). The resultant cell lines were used to stimulate purified T cells isolated from different healthy donors and T cell proliferation was assessed. As shown in Fig. 2B stimulation of human T cells in the presence of the costimulatory molecules used in this study (CD80, ICOSL, CD58, CD54 and 4-1BBL) significantly enhanced T cell proliferation compared to T cells co-cultured with stimulator cells expressing no human costimulatory molecule. Furthermore, our data show that CD80 was

the strongest costimulatory ligand tested in these experiments and demonstrate that among the other molecules analyzed CD58 is the most potent inducer of T cell proliferation. There is an increasing number of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs for treatment of patients suffering from autoimmune diseases and recipients of hematopoietic stem cells or solid organs. Many of these drugs target fast dividing cells whereas others specifically suppress T cells or counteract inflammatory processes. Antibodies or receptor fusion proteins that block the cytokine TNF-α are successfully used in patients suffering from psoriasis, rheumatoid isothipendyl arthritis and various other autoimmune diseases (Aringer and Smolen, 2008, Bosani et al., 2009 and Taylor and Feldmann, 2009). TNF-α is a pleiotrophic cytokine and the beneficial effects of TNF-α blockade are mainly ascribed to its capacity to prevent and down-modulate proinflammatory processes. Whereas other members of the TNF-family have been shown to act as potent costimulatory molecules, few studies have addressed the ability of TNF-α to directly contribute to T cell activation processes. We found that expressing TNF-α on T cell stimulator cells enhances their ability to induce proliferation in purified human T cells (Fig. 3A).

128 trials were presented First, DD minus control difference sco

128 trials were presented. First, DD minus control difference scores were computed for tests and for the most important experimental contrasts (see details in Supplementary material): simple RT; animal Stroop task congruency; numerical and physical size Stroop task numerical distance effect, facilitation and interference; subitizing slope (numbers 1–3), counting slope (numbers 4–6); non-symbolic comparison slope and congruency effect, symbolic comparison slope; Stop-signal task hit and correct rejection performance. Difference score data was assessed by robust non-parametric permutation testing (Ludbrook and Dudley, 1998). Dependent variables were test scores, accuracy selleck antibody and median RT. Procedure followed Chihara and Hesterberg (2011).

DD minus control group difference scores were computed for all measures and the whole pool of participants were randomly divided into two groups of 12 participants one million times. Two-tailed significance values were determined with six decimal digits precision. In order to provide an estimate of effect size, empirical 95% confidence intervals for difference scores ALK inhibitor were also determined by bootstrap resampling producing one million bootstrap samples with replacement for each group. Second, all experimental data was also analyzed

by analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with full factorial designs. Third, while permutation tests provide extremely stringent criteria and groups were perfectly matched on several factors, difference scores showing significant permutation testing effects were nevertheless further analyzed (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate by ANCOVAs with a group factor and with covariates of verbal intelligence (WISC Vocabulary), non-verbal intelligence (Raven) and simple RT speed (median RT from the Simple RT task). With matched groups this procedure can further increase power (Miller and Chapman, 2001). Fourth, simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to study the relative weight of variables which significantly discriminated between the DD and control groups and were correlated with maths performance (the mean of the MaLT and WIAT Numerical Operations scales). Regressions are described further in Results. Analyses were programmed in Matlab. Fig. 2

summarizes significant DD versus control group differences in standardized test scores. The two groups differed on measures of visuo-spatial STM (Dot Matrix) and WM (OOO Recall, OOO Processing). 95% bootstrapped confidence intervals were robustly below zero for each measure showing a significant group difference (i.e., the DD group performed worse than the control group). For comparison, means and confidence intervals for non-significant verbal STM (Digit Recall, Word Recall) and WM measures (Listening Recall and Processing) are also presented. Table 1 shows F and p values from ANCOVAs for significant tests taking verbal IQ, non-verbal IQ and processing speed as covariates. Fig. 3A summarizes main DD minus control group differences in accuracy.

After our first few conditioning studies had been published, Bob

After our first few conditioning studies had been published, Bob learned of some very early papers in Russian that had reported putative conditioned immunological effects. He had these papers translated and then described and re-evaluated the presented data in a fascinating contribution (Ader, 1981b). Bob also wrote two papers

exclusively devoted to the early history of PNI (Ader, 1995 and Ader, 2000). In these definitive historical accounts, Bob gave full credit to those whose work took place shortly before or around the same time as our 1975 paper. In fact, he emphasized that it was the very juxtaposition of all this information www.selleckchem.com/products/ganetespib-sta-9090.html (Bob referred to this as the right stuff at the right time; Ader, Proteases inhibitor 2000) that served to substantiate the interconnectedness of behavior,

immunity, and the nervous and endocrine systems. That said, why do others join me in thinking of Bob Ader as the founding father of psychoneuroimmunology rather than one of several founding fathers? Several reasons come to mind. First, Bob recognized the importance of the conditioning studies within the context of integrated physiological systems that maintain homeostasis. That is, he understood that “in the real world,” the immune system does not operate as an autonomous agency of defense. More importantly, Bob did not keep this recognition to himself. Early on, he proselytized for this emerging field at meetings of various behavioral Montelukast Sodium and neuroscience societies and at other meetings in the US and abroad 3. He already had a stellar reputation as a behavioral psychologist and psychosomaticist,

so people in these fields listened and accepted 4—unlike most immunologists at the time, who listened with outright disbelief if not healthy skepticism. Second, Bob also had the simple but brilliant idea of inviting those scientists who had been gathering data about many facets of the CNS-immune system connection to contribute chapters to a book he called Psychoneuroimmunology ( Ader, 1981a). This compilation – the first of its kind – coalesced the field. Furthermore, titling this book Psychoneuroimmunology served to add this word to the lexicon of science. Now there was a single descriptive word (and the simple acronym of PNI 5) to categorize the study of interactions among behavior, the nervous system (including, of course, the endocrine system) and the immune system. The use of “psychoneuroimmunology” caught on and even engendered minor territorial skirmishes with those who preferred the even more cumbersome psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology or neuroimmunomodulation (which, when attached to the name of a society, made Bob query “neuroimmunomodulation of what?”). I don’t believe that Bob thought of himself as particularly clever when he coined the word psychoneuroimmunology6. In his view, it was a logical choice.

A biologically active quinone, 7,8-seco-para-ferruginone (SPF), e

A biologically active quinone, 7,8-seco-para-ferruginone (SPF), exhibited a growth-inhibitory effect on rat liver cancer cells. The authors suggest that the cytotoxic activity is related to the morphological changes that induce apoptosis of the cells exposed to this molecule. NVP(1), a 6,6 kDa protein isolated from the venom of Nidus vespae, inhibited proliferation of HepG2 hepatoma cells in the concentration of 6.6 μg/ml. In addition, NVP(1) promoted apoptosis of HepG2 cells as indicated by nuclear chromatin condensation. This protein Alisertib order could arrest the cell cycle at stage G1 and inhibit the mRNA expression of cyclinB,

cyclin D1 and cyclinE. NVP(1) increased p27 and p21 protein expression, but suppressed cdk2 protein expression. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was activated, indicating that NVP(1) inhibits proliferation of HepG2 through ERK signaling pathway, through activation of p27 e p21 and reduction of cdk2 expression

( Wang et al., 2008a). Studies on the anti-cancer potential of wasp venoms are still in a preliminary phase. There are few published articles reporting the activities of either crude wasp venom extract or its purified components. Besides that, few cell lines have been treated with this venom and no studies in vivo have been performed yet, thus this is an area of research requiring investigation. Spiders are the most diverse group of arthropods (38,000 species described), and relatively few toxins have been studied so far (Escoubas, 2006a), making this a field of research yet to be explored, especially in biotechnological Talazoparib solubility dmso aspects. Spider venoms are composed by a great variety of molecules;

as an example, funnel-web spiders produce more than 1000 peptides, as revealed by mass spectrometry analyses of their venom. A gross estimation of 500 different toxins for each spider venom would give us a total of 19,000,000 toxins for the 38,000 known spider species. Such diversity Tacrolimus (FK506) of peptides is a great promise for the discovery of new substances of pharmacological interest (Escoubas, 2006a). Spider venoms are a complex mixture of proteins, polypeptides, neurotoxins, nucleic acids, free amino acids, inorganic salts and monoamines that cause diverse effects in vertebrates and invertebrates (Jackson and Parks, 1989, Ori and Ikeda, 1998 and Schanbacher et al., 1973). Regarding the pharmacology and biochemistry of spider venoms, they present a variety of ion channel toxins, novel non-neurotoxins, enzymes and low molecular weight compounds (Rash and Hodgson, 2002). Even though these toxins may bear a great anti-tumor potential, few studies using spider venoms as anti-tumor agents have been published. Some toxins have been isolated and purified, such as a phospholipase-D, from the venom of brown spider that displays high hemolytic activity in red blood cells (Silva et al., 2004), which could present anti-cancer action.

There was

no significant difference in the rCBF between t

There was

no significant difference in the rCBF between the AGL (medium dose) and vehicle groups during ischemia (Fig. 3). After reperfusion, rCBF levels remained higher in the AGL group, achieving statistical significance during the later phase. The BDNF levels in the whole forebrain were significantly elevated in the AGL group compared with the vehicle group (Fig. 4). In the forebrain, there were significant elevations in the cortex, and the thalamostriatum. The BDNF levels in the hippocampus did not achieve a significant difference. On selleck screening library analysis of the volumes of infarcted lesions in the acute phase (Fig. 5A), the reduction in the AGL (medium dose)-treated group did not achieve a significant difference, selleck as compared with vehicle alone (Fig. 5B). There was no significant difference in the edema index between the groups (data not shown). In the chronic phase, the volumes of infarcted lesions were not different between the groups (Fig. 5B). On assessment of neurological function, the SND score was not different between the groups, for seven days after ischemia (Fig. 5C). It was demonstrated that chronic, prophylactic treatment with AGL increased BDNF levels in the brain, and protected the brain against ischemic stroke. The pharmacokinetics and the efficacy profiles of AGL on glucose/insulin/glucagon levels in plasma after acute or chronic administration have been extensively studied in diabetic and normal animals

(Moritoh et al., 2008 and Lee et al., 2008), with a mean half-life

of 3.6 h in normal rats, and 28 h in normal monkeys. After a single gavage (0.5 mg/kg) of AGL in normal rats, maximum inhibition (90%) of DPP-4 occurred at 30 min, which declined to 40% at 12 h, and disappeared within 24 h (Lee et al., 2008). We discontinued the treatment 24 h before the onset of ischemia to exclude, or at least minimize, any direct effects of AGL on cerebral ischemia. It is well known that hyperglycemia is an exacerbating factor in ischemic stroke in patients with DM-2. However, normal blood glucose levels were not reduced by chronic, prophylactic treatment with AGL. AGL actually has only a minor effect on individuals with normal blood glucose levels. Administration of extremely high doses of AGL (100 mg/kg) showed no effect on fasting plasma glucose or insulin levels in normal mice (Lee et al., 2008), confirming that the effects of Parvulin AGL on insulin secretion and insulin resistance are dependent in the presence of hyperglycemia. Functional deterioration improved in both the chronic AGL- and vehicle-treated groups on entering the chronic phase, obliterating the initial difference between the groups. Because the rate of passage of biological time correlates inversely to [body weight]2, as represented by longevity and heart/respiration rate (Calder, 1983), 15–30 min in mice is regarded as from 30 min to 1 h in rats (Yanamoto et al., 2004), and 3–6 h in humans (Yanamoto et al., 2012).

asleyetracking com) sampling at 50 Hz MRI data were acquired on

asleyetracking.com) sampling at 50 Hz. MRI data were acquired on a 3T Magnetom selleck products Allegra head-only MRI scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) operated with the standard transmit-receive head coil. Functional MRI data were acquired in three sessions with a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) sensitive T2*-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence which was optimized to minimize signal dropout in the medial temporal lobe (Weiskopf, Hutton, Josephs,

& Deichmann, 2006). The sequence used a descending slice acquisition order with a slice thickness of 2 mm, an interslice gap of 1 mm, and an in-plane resolution of 3 × 3 mm. Forty eight slices were

HSP inhibitor clinical trial collected covering the entire brain, resulting in a repetition time of 2.88 sec. The echo time was 30 msec and the flip angle 90°. All data were acquired at a −45° angle to the anterior–posterior axis. In addition, field maps were collected for subsequent distortion correction (Weiskopf et al., 2006). These were acquired with a double-echo gradient echo field map sequence (TE = 10 and 12.46 msec, TR = 1020 msec, matrix size 64 × 64, with 64 slices, voxel size = 3 mm3) covering the whole head. After these functional scans, a 3D MDEFT T1-weighted structural scan was acquired for each participant with 1 mm isotropic resolution (Deichmann, Schwarzbauer, & Turner, 2004). FMRI data were pre-processed using SPM8 (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm). The first 6 ‘dummy’ volumes from each of the three sessions were discarded to allow for T1 equilibration

effects. Images were realigned and unwarped (using the field maps) and normalised to a standard EPI template in MNI space with a resampled voxel size of 3 × 3 × 3 mm. Functional data were left unsmoothed for the decoding analyses to facilitate the detection of information present across patterns of voxels. Each trial was modelled as a separate regressor for the 6sec stimulus duration and convolved with the canonical haemodynamic response function. Catch trials were combined into a single regressor and, along with participant-specific movement regressors, were included as covariates of no interest. Participant-specific parameter estimates pertaining ADP ribosylation factor to each regressor (betas) were calculated for each voxel. Motivated by the findings of Auger et al. (2012), our main region of interest (ROI) was the RSC. In this previous study of item features, we found that the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) responded to permanence as well as to a range of other features (Auger et al., 2012). Interestingly, however, and unlike RSC, the PHC was not sensitive to differences between good and poor navigators. We therefore included PHC as a second ROI in our analysis. As in Auger et al.

This mutant still induced IL8 expression, indicating that the bac

This mutant still induced IL8 expression, indicating that the bacterial flagellum is not the major inducer of IL8 in this system ( Supplementary Figure 4E). We then asked whether specific cells in the organoids respond to the

bacteria and used our differentiation protocol to generate gland-type or pit-type organoids, which we subsequently microinjected with H pylori. IL8 expression was substantially higher in gland-type organoids than in pit-type organoids ( Figure 6F). Here, we present a long-term 3-dimensional organoid culture system for primary, untransformed human gastric epithelium as well as human gastric cancer. By using this culture, we provide Navitoclax chemical structure direct evidence for the presence of stem cells in adult human gastric tissue. The cells can be directed

to differentiate into specific lineages of the stomach. The organoids mount an NF-κB–driven inflammatory response to infection and the strength of this response depends on the differentiated cell types in the organoids. The presence of stem cells in the human adult stomach is expected, yet has not been shown previously. The organoids we present here can be grown from fluorescence-activated cell sorter–isolated single cells and generate 4 lineages of the stomach: pit mucous cells, gland mucous cells, chief cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Of the enteroendocrine cells, we identified SST-expressing cells, but not BIBF 1120 clinical trial corpus-specific ECL cells. We also could not detect parietal cells. We assume the culture conditions were not optimal to allow differentiation into these cell types. Once clonal organoids are established, they expand without apparent limitation (>1 y), defying the Hayflick limit. Thus, the isolated cells can self-renew and are long-lived and multipotent, fulfilling the classic criteria for stem cells. In the intestine, the pathologic activation of the Wnt pathway in cancer represents a deregulation

of the controlled activation necessary for normal stem cell–driven tissue homeostasis.25 In the stomach, the role of the Wnt pathway is less clear. Up to 30% of gastric tumors are found to carry an activated Wnt pathway,26 and 27 whereas mutations in the Wnt pathway drive tumorigenesis in the mouse.4 and 28 Two of the known stem Fenbendazole cell markers in the mouse stomach, Troy and Lgr5, are Wnt target genes.4 and 11 Here, we provide additional evidence for the importance of the Wnt pathway in human gastric epithelium. First, establishment and growth of human gastric organoids depends on Wnt and R-Spondin1. Second, on withdrawal of Wnt, organoids differentiate into pit lineage cultures. In the intestine, the Wnt-secreting Paneth cells provide the niche for stem cells17 and competition for niche space determines the fate of the stem cell daughter cells.5 and 6 It seems likely that there is a Wnt source at the bottom of gastric glands and that the migration of daughter cells upward toward the gastric surface directs the differentiation into the pit lineage.

Finally, Zobel-Thropp et al (2012) reported the cloning and hete

Finally, Zobel-Thropp et al. (2012) reported the cloning and heterologous expression of a phospholipase-D from L. arizonica. Additionally, proteomic analysis of Loxosceles

species venoms demonstrated the existence of eleven isoforms of related phospholipase-D proteins in Loxosceles gaucho venom ( Machado et al., 2005) and at least seven related phospholipase-D proteins in L. intermedia ( dos Santos et al., 2009). The toxins characterized as phospholipase-D proteins have been grouped into a family ( Kalapothakis et al., this website 2007). The noxious effects induced by crude Loxosceles venom may be a result of synergism among these toxins, strengthening the biological importance of these molecules in the biological cycle of Loxosceles spiders ( Kalapothakis et al., 2007). Here, using a recombinant isoform of L. intermedia phospholipase-D PTC124 concentration (LiRecDT1)

and related biotools, such as polyclonal antibodies against LiRecDT1 and GFP-LiRecDT1 ( Chaim et al., 2006; Kusma et al., 2008; Chaves-Moreira et al., 2011), we achieved immune detection of several expressed phospholipase-D isoforms in crude venom and found that they exhibit modulatory activities, such as affecting membrane binding, phospholipid hydrolysis, calcium influx and proliferative activity, in the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. The results open the possibility of using this toxin as an exogenous biotool to modulate cellular processes and in studies addressing calcium and phospholipid metabolism. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant phospho-lipase-D (LiRecDT1) were produced in rabbits following the procedure in Chaim et al. (2006). Adult rabbits weighing approximately 3 kg from the Central

Animal House of the Federal University of Paraná were used. All experimental protocols involving animals were performed according to the Principles of Laboratory Animal Care (NIH Phosphoglycerate kinase Publication n° 85-23, revised 1985), Brazilian Federal Laws, and ethical committee agreement number 566 of the Federal University of Paraná. Crude L. intermedia venom was extracted from wild-caught spiders following Feitosa et al. (1998), in accordance with the Brazilian Federal System for Authorization and Information on Biodiversity (SISBIO-ICMBIO, N° 29801-1). DAPI, AlexaFluor-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG, Fluo-4 AM and the CyQUANT Cell proliferation assay kit were purchased from Molecular Probes (Eugene, Oregon, USA). A venom gland cDNA library was constructed previously (Chaim et al., 2006; Gremski et al., 2010). The GenBank designation for the deposited data on the cloned L. intermedia LiRecDT1 cDNA sequence is DQ218155.1. The cDNA sequence corresponding to the mature phospholipase-D LiRecDT1 protein was amplified via PCR.

The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of EMVs was assayed using

The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of EMVs was assayed using ALP colorimetric

kit (AnaSpec, Fremont, CA). Briefly, 50-μg vesicles were incubated with a colorimetric substrate, para-nitrophenyl phosphate, and the conversion of para-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol on release of phosphate ions was monitored at 405 nm. The protein concentration of the EMV samples was measured by Bradford assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA). For detection of mCherry fluorescence on EMVs derived from mCherry-labeled, 143B luciferase–expressing, puromycin-resistant cells, EMV suspensions were examined microscopically using the Olympus (Center Valley, PA) IX71 inverted fluorescent microscope equipped with a xenon arc lamp and monochromatic complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. In addition, flow cytometric this website Obeticholic Acid price data were acquired on EMV suspensions using the BD LSR II flow cytometer integrated with FACSDiva software (BD Biosciences,

San Jose, CA, USA). For TEM, 143B EMV pellets were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% osmium tetraoxide (OsO4), dehydrated, embedded in epon resin, and cut into ultrathin sections. The sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead acetate before mounting on EM grids. The sections were examined and photographed using a JEM 1400 electron microscope (JEOL USA, Inc., Peabody, MA, USA) (80 kV). To determine the biochemical composition of the 143B EMV cargo, Western blot analyses were performed according to the previously described method [30]. 143B EMVs

were homogenized in Tris lysis buffer (20 mM Tris, 137 mM NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol, 1 mM PMSF, and 1 mM DTT). Crude lysates of 143B cells (12.5-25 μg) and EMVs (25-40 μg) were denatured in sodium dodecyl sulfate sample buffer, electrophoresed on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and visualized by Ponceau stain. For immunoblot analysis, the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin proteins from the gel were transferred on to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and incubated with the following primary antibodies: anti–MMP-1 and anti–MMP-13 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (Santa Cruz, CA, USA); 200 μg/ml each) at 1:200, anti-CD-9 (SBI: System Biosciences (Mountain View, CA, USA); 0.25 mg/ml) at 1:1000, and anti-RANKL and anti–TGF-β (GeneTex (Irvine, CA, USA); 1 mg/ml) at 1:1000 dilution. Detection of the immunostained bands was done by ECL chemiluminescence detection system (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL). Image acquisition was done using LabWorks Image Acquisition and Analysis Software (UVP Bioimaging Systems, Upland, CA) and Image Lab software for the ChemiDoc MP system (Bio-Rad Laboratories) at incremental exposure time frame of 15, 30, 60, 180, and 300 seconds.


Although BGJ398 an inclusive process, it resulted in a vast number of indicators, that impeded their use in an overall management process [11]. In the case of New Zealand rock lobsters, maintaining stocks above BMSY is the key operational objective that resource users must achieve. Defining more than a few outcome targets may stifle the flexibility that is vital for RBM to be successful, and lead to a different form of micromanagement instead of reducing it. On the organizational

side, Hatton and Schroeder [66] emphasize that performance of RBM ultimately depends on the capacity and commitments of the operating partner. The issue of capacity requires thinking about framing conditions in which effective stakeholder organizations can develop and thrive [43]. In turn, the issue of commitment brings us to the challenge of how to engage operating

partners in a RBM strategy. Here the issues of motivation and leadership are focal as they, as Mayne [62] puts it, are part of what fosters a climate in which RBM will thrive. Both the authority and the operators must perceive RBM to have something to offer. A key recommendation for a successful implementation of RBM by Hatton and Schroeder [66]: 431, is therefore to incentivize achievements of results. The incentives for a vessel to participate in CQM are immediately apparent and will be elicited once it is accepted in CQM. PF-562271 molecular weight This is not the case for the industry lead management of rock lobsters in New Zealand, where economic incentives are linked to the potential of achieving successful and cost-effective (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate management in the long term. In this case, good leadership appears to have been an important factor [35](see also [37]). Mayne [62] regards strong leadership as a first principle for best RBM practices,

but also emphasizes the importance of creating ownership for the different partners involved, and of defining their respective responsibilities clearly. Reforming organizational arrangements based on RBM is noted to be a time consuming process that requires commitment and perseverance from all involved parties [15]. In New Zealand, a range of commercial stakeholder organizations have developed the necessary organizational capacity required to take on significant responsibility for management and research processes. This outcome stems from decades of efforts and has involved success as well as failure [43]. A similar process cannot be expected to happen overnight in Europe.