HSV-2 transmission occurs through genital-genital contact during

HSV-2 transmission occurs through genital-genital contact during sexual activity. HSV-2 may be transmitted in the absence of signs or symptoms of infection in the infected partner, during episodes of subclinical shedding [10]. In addition, most people who acquire HSV-2 are asymptomatic at the time of acquisition [11]. Transmission mTOR inhibitor of HSV from mother to infant during birth is a serious complication of genital herpes, and can result in long-term neurologic sequelae or mortality [12].

Women who acquire HSV during pregnancy are at the highest risk of transmitting the infection [13]. With an estimated incidence of 4–31/100,000 live births [14] and [15], neonatal herpes is too rare to be used as an endpoint in a clinical trial. However, prevention

of HSV acquisition during pregnancy is an important goal of developing an effective HSV vaccine. The greatest public health impact of HSV-2 infection is its role in promulgating the HIV-1 epidemic. BLZ945 solubility dmso Persons with HSV-2 infection are 3-fold more likely to acquire HIV-1 infection [16]; this risk increases up to 8-fold if the exposure occurs soon after acquiring HSV-2 infection [17] and [18]. In HIV-1 infected persons, HIV-1 is found in HSV-2 genital ulcers [19], and persons with genital ulcers are at increased risk of transmitting HIV-1 [20]. In regions with high HSV-2 seroprevalence (>80%), 25–50% of HIV-1 infections are attributable to HSV-2 [21]. Mathematical models suggest that even moderately effective prophylactic HSV-2 vaccines would lead to a marked decrease in HIV-1 incidence if given at high coverage [22]. Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase The biologic basis for this predisposition is the persistent mucosal inflammatory response induced by HSV-2. Genital biopsy studies have revealed that HSV-2 ulcers are associated with an infiltrate of CD4+ T-cells bearing the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 or CXCR4, which persists during daily antiviral therapy for HSV [23]. Histopathologic studies of foreskins from HIV-1-seronegative men demonstrate that HSV-2 seropositive men have increased concentration of CD4+ and CD8+

T-cells as compared to HSV-2 seronegative men [24]. Similar findings have been found in cervical cytobrush samples from HIV-1 negative, HSV-2 seropositive women [25]. Currently available HSV-2 prevention strategies are inadequate; each reduces the risk of transmission by approximately 50%. Evidence-based methods include use of suppressive antiviral therapy [26], disclosure of serostatus to susceptible partners [27], and consistent condom use [28]. While male circumcision decreases the risk of HSV-2 acquisition by nearly 30% [29], there are conflicting data about the role of circumcision in transmission to women [30] and [31]. These partly effective strategies may be useful for management of individual patients, but they are unlikely to be of public health benefit.

3 Although the most favorable outcomes have been reported with pa

3 Although the most favorable outcomes have been reported with patients who undergo a radical nephrectomy and lymph node dissection before the development of metastasis, successful and reliable

treatment regimens are lacking.4 For the patients who undergo radical nephrectomy, the challenge then lies in follow-up. A unique surveillance protocol has yet to be developed, although many agree that these patients should be categorized as high risk.2 and 3 Clinicians should be aware of this rare variant NVP-AUY922 price and various presentations to ensure appropriate patient management and surveillance. A 63-year-old woman was referred to us for a right renal pelvic mass detected on ultrasound during a gross hematuria and flank pain evaluation. Urine cytology was negative for malignancy, and computed tomography (CT) showed Crizotinib manufacturer high-grade obstruction of the right kidney secondary to a 3.5-cm infiltrative lesion involving the proximal collecting system with infiltration into the superior renal pole parenchyma. The patient also had diffuse retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, which were attributed to her chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) currently in remission on the basis of comparison with

previous imaging. In addition to CLL, past medical history included Moyamoya disease, transient ischemic attacks, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, fibromyalgia, seizure disorder, asthma, and hypothyroidism Cediranib (AZD2171) due to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. She remained highly functional despite her medical comorbidities. Chest CT revealed no evidence of metastasis, and the patient was counseled on the need for ureteroscopic biopsy for tissue diagnosis. Cystoscopy showed no abnormal findings. Retrograde ureteropyelogram identified a large filling defect within the right renal pelvis extending all the way to the mid ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy revealed a

large, elongated, and pale fleshy-appearing mass that did not appear to be consistent with urothelial carcinoma, but rather resembling a necrotic fibroepithelial polyp. The non-necrotic parts of tumor were biopsied despite extensive clot surrounding this mass which made visualization extremely challenging. Two large fragments were sent for permanent pathologic analysis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were partially PAX8(+), CD10(+), CK7(−), p63(−), GATA3(−), and MiTF(−) with strong immunoreactivity for TFE3, excluding urothelial carcinoma. Considering the aggressive nature of Xp11 TRCC, the decision was made with the patient and family to promptly undergo a right laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and regional lymphadenectomy, which were performed without complications. Surgical pathology revealed pT3aN1Mx, Xp11.2-associated clear cell RCC, with Fuhrman nuclear grade 4 and negative margins (Fig. 1).

This post hoc analysis was weighted towards the population in Vie

This post hoc analysis was weighted towards the population in Vietnam because there was only one subject in Bangladesh

who did Cisplatin concentration not receive the 3 doses of PRV on the same day as doses of OPV. The remainder of the infants received some doses of OPV concomitantly with some, but not all, doses of PRV/placebo (data not shown). The immunogenicity of PRV in those Vietnamese subjects who received concomitant doses of OPV and PRV on the same day showed generally lower GMT anti-rotavirus IgA levels (GMT, 143.2 dilution units/mL) compared with those subjects who did not receive doses of OPV with each of the 3 doses of PRV on the same day (GMT, 232.7 dilution units/mL) (Fig. 5A). The same pattern of decreased PD3 SNA GMT level was noted among those who received

PRV and OPV concomitantly compared to those who did not receive the vaccines together (Fig. 5B). However, it is important to highlight that this study was not designed to evaluate the immunogenicity of PRV when administered concomitantly with OPV or to evaluate the immunogenicity of PRV when not administered concomitantly with OPV. These comparisons are purely observational because these two groups were not randomized accordingly; the group of subjects who did not receive PRV concomitantly with OPV cannot serve as a true control group for those subjects who received PRV and OPV concomitantly. The Talazoparib concentration groups also differ considerably in size. It is important to note that the subjects who did not receive OPV concomitantly (on the same day) may have actually received

OPV one or two days before or after administration of PRV. Administration of OPV one or two days before the administration of the rotavirus vaccine can potentially interfere more with the replication of the rotavirus vaccine than when OPV and the rotavirus vaccine are given on the same day, due to the active replication of the poliovirus vaccine strains. The clinical trial of PRV conducted in Bangladesh and Vietnam is the only Phase III study evaluating the efficacy Levetiracetam and immunogenicity of a rotavirus vaccine performed in GAVI-eligible countries in Asia [14]. Our study allowed the evaluation of the immunogenicity of PRV, an oral vaccine, in infants in two lower socio-economic countries in Asia. In the present study, nearly 88% of the infants showed a ≥3-fold rise in serum anti-rotavirus IgA response. However, the anti-rotavirus IgA seroresponse rates appeared different between the two countries: the rate was approximately 78% and 97% in Bangladesh and Vietnam, respectively, likely reflecting the different socio-economic conditions between the subjects from each of these two GAVI-eligible countries.

In the Phase 2 study, the highest anti-TRAP GMTs were observed po

In the Phase 2 study, the highest anti-TRAP GMTs were observed post Dose 2 (DOC) in both the TRAP/AS02 and RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 groups; GMTs were similar in both groups. At 134 days post DOC, anti-TRAP GMTs had decreased but were still above post Dose 1 values

in both vaccine groups. In the Phase 1 study, antigen specific Alectinib proliferative responses to RTS,S in recipients of RTS,S/AS02 or RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 and to TRAP in recipients of TRAP/AS02 or RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 were markedly elevated over baseline values. Proliferation to RTS,S was similar in both the RTS,S/AS02 and RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 groups and to TRAP in both the TRAP/AS02 and RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 groups (see Supplementary Appendix). Cellular responses were boosted

by the third vaccination and responses persisted at day 360. Measurements of IFN-γ and IL-5 in culture supernatant in response to antigen-specific stimulation showed substantial induction post second vaccination; no meaningful increase was observed post third vaccination. No real differences in RTS,S stimulated responses were observed between RTS,S and RTS,S/TRAP vaccinated groups (see Supplementary Appendix). In the Phase 2 study, RTS,S stimulated IFN-γ responses in PBMC cultures derived from subjects vaccinated with RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 greatly exceeded baseline responses (Fig. 2). RTS,S did not elicit IFN-γ responses in PBMC cultures from subjects vaccinated with TRAP/AS02. TRAP-specific IFN-γ responses were observed in PBMC cultures from RTS,S + TRAP as well as TRAP vaccinated subjects, check details but not in pre-vaccination PBMC cultures. Analysis of IL-4 responses in parallel cultures of PBMC from pre- and post-vaccinated subjects showed a similar pattern of reactivity (Fig. 3). Pre-immune PBMC showed no notable responses to either RTS,S or to TRAP. Post vaccination IL-4 responses elicited with RTS,S and TRAP were antigen-specific in that TRAP recalled responses in TRAP and RTS,S + TRAP recipients,

whereas RTS,S recalled responses only in RTS,S + TRAP vaccinees. Of note, while PBMC from RTS,S + TRAP recipients showed higher IFN-γ responses to RTS,S than TRAP, results for IL-4 responses PAK6 to both antigens were similar. Of the 24 volunteers who underwent challenge, patent parasitemia developed in 10 of 11 RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 vaccinees, all 5 TRAP/AS02 vaccinees, and all 8 infectivity controls (Fig. 4). Fisher’s exact tests of the proportion of subjects infected indicated that neither vaccinated group differed from control (p = 1.0). The median pre-patent period from challenge to infection was 13.0, 11.0 and 12.0 days for the RTS,S + TRAP/AS02, TRAP/AS02 and infectivity control groups, respectively (log rank test: p = 0.096 RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 vs control, p = 0.661 TRAP/AS02 vs control). Both studies demonstrated the combination vaccine RTS,S + TRAP/AS02 had an acceptable safety profile and was generally well tolerated.

Several studies contribute to the understanding of the epidemiolo

Several studies contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of intussusception in India. In a 6-year retrospective review from 2007 to 2012 of intussusception cases among children <5 years of age presenting to two facilities, one in Manipal in southern India and one in north-central India in Lucknow, 175 cases of intussusception were identified with 75% of the cases occurring in males [30]. The median age was 8 months with 56% of cases in children <5 years of age occurring by the first birthday. The classic triad of symptoms, vomiting, passage of blood through the rectum, and abdominal pain, were present in only

19% of cases. All cases were diagnosed by either ultrasound or abdominal radiology. The median length of stay was 10 days with 72% of cases managed surgically, 26% managed RGFP966 ic50 by radiological reduction, and 3% of cases spontaneously reduced. No fatalities were observed. In a study in Vellore, data from retrospective surveillance of intussusception

cases among children <2 years of age who presented to a large tertiary referral center during January 2010 through August 2013 were compared to data on cases of intussusception identified through active surveillance as part of a clinical trial conducted in the region during the same time period [31]. The findings from the retrospective review were similar to those from the two center retrospective study in Manipal and Lucknow. Intussusception peaked in children 4–6 months of age with 85% occurring in the first year of life. Two thirds of intussusception cases occurred in

males. Almost CHIR-99021 in vivo all cases, 97%, met the Megestrol Acetate Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group level 1 criteria for diagnostic certainty with a median of 48 h between symptom onset and arrival at the hospital. Approximately half of the cases required surgery and of those requiring surgery, half had resection performed. There were no deaths identified through retrospective surveillance. In sharp contrast, the active surveillance conducted as part of the phase 3 clinical trial identified 16 cases in the trial population, all of which were outside the known risk window associated with rotavirus vaccination, and only 7 (44%) met the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group level 1 criteria for diagnostic certainty with a median interval between symptom onset and follow-up of 10 h. None of these cases require surgery, half were <1 year of age, and none of the children died. Another study further examines the intussusception data from the phase 3 clinical trial and included data from all three clinical trial sites, Vellore, Pune, and Delhi [32]. Of the 1432 suspected intussusception events that were screened, only 23 cases of intussusception were identified by ultrasound, of which a total of 11 (48%) met the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group level 1 criteria for diagnostic certainty.

From 1976, in addition to the above, newborns and children aged b

From 1976, in addition to the above, newborns and children aged between 6 and 12 years were vaccinated with BCG if they were: (1) Inuits or Amerindians; (2) immigrants originating from a country with high TB incidence; and (3) tuberculin-negative individuals who lived at poverty threshold, especially in larger towns (Ministère des Affaires sociales, 1976). Our study revealed an important contribution of the subject’s ethnocultural background in determining the likelihood of BCG vaccination, both the parents’ and grandparents’ origin. Individuals born to immigrant parents were much less likely

to be vaccinated than those whose parents were born in Québec. As well, the subject’s grandparents’ ethnocultural origin was the sole and strong predictor of vaccination after the period of the provincial program. These observations are in agreement with a study Selleckchem ATM Kinase Inhibitor conducted among

immigrant children in Ontario (Canada), in which subject’s region of origin was the most influential determinant of immunization compliance, after adjusting for individual, maternal, familial, and health service characteristics (Guttmann et al., 2008). Vaccination compliance was also higher in Australian-born than among immigrant children (Jones et al., 1992). Residential area was an important predictor of vaccination within the BCG program. In the 1950s, tuberculin reactivity test and vaccination rates in Québec were estimated see more to be 80% in rural areas and less than 60% in large cities (Frappier et al., 1971). We also observed a higher vaccination coverage among rural inhabitants, as reported elsewhere (Bundt and Hu, 2004, Faustini et al., 2001, Harmanci et al., 2003 and Haynes and Stone,

Farnesyltransferase 2004). Faustini suggested that this tendency might be explained by the relative scarcity of healthcare resources per capita in urban settings. In large cities where a vast susceptible population is targeted in a vaccination campaign, the per capita availability could be inadequate despite a greater number of clinics (Faustini et al., 2001). Our results on parents’ birthplace and grandparents’ ancestry, in the context of the province of Québec, may relate to the minority English-speaking community which was generally not in favor of BCG vaccination, similarly to most other provinces in Canada and the USA (Malissard, 1998). Vaccination after the program was only related to grandparents’ ethnocultural origin, and was much more likely among those of French ancestry. Among Stage 2 participants, almost all mothers and fathers of those who were vaccinated after the program were born in Québec, preventing us from considering parents’ birthplace in the final model. The association with grandparents’ ancestry may again reflect the greater acceptance of this vaccine in the French-speaking community.

The purpose of a chlamydial vaccine is to prevent the sequelae of

The purpose of a chlamydial vaccine is to prevent the sequelae of Ct infection: PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and blinding trachoma. An effective chlamydial vaccine could prevent primary infection, prevent re-infection, modify disease progression following

infection, or reduce transmission by reducing bacterial load or the duration of infection. Phase II studies could evaluate vaccine immunogenicity, safety and efficacy in preventing Ct infection in human volunteers. Human challenge experiments with Ct have not been reported since the ocular challenge studies more than 50 years ago, but urethral challenge studies in male volunteers may be possible; there is an extensive literature on urethral challenge of human volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. selleckchem The primary endpoint for phase III trials would probably be Ct infection. The frequency of sampling would need to be determined and, in the case of genital infection, treatment would need to be given as soon as infection SCH 900776 was detected. In the case of ocular infection in trachoma endemic communities this would not necessarily be the case, since the recommended control strategy is annual mass treatment of endemic communities or households. Phase IV trials could aim to evaluate vaccine efficacy in preventing PID,

but this would be particularly challenging, given the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis. Improved diagnostic tests (biomarkers or imaging) will be needed. Evaluating efficacy in preventing infertility and ectopic pregnancy would require prolonged follow up and a large sample size. Phase IV trials

will be confounded by the necessity to treat subjects and their partners as soon as infection is diagnosed. Vaccine efficacy in preventing infection, or reducing inflammation, the duration of infection or the incidence and progression of scarring could be easily evaluated in a trachoma endemic community, by frequent examination of the subtarsal conjunctiva. The incidence and progression of conjunctival scarring can be determined using an ocular microscope (slit lamp). Our recent studies have shown that confocal microscopy can identify conjunctival scarring out at an early stage, before it is clinically apparent [99]. The evidence from trachoma vaccine trials in monkeys and humans has been interpreted as showing that vaccination can lead to more severe inflammatory disease following re-challenge with a different serovar of Ct As discussed above, the evidence for this from human trials is not convincing; and in the only vaccine trial in which scarring was included as an endpoint, its prevalence was reduced in the vaccinated group. Nevertheless, the spectre of an immunopathological response to chlamydial vaccination will not be easily laid to rest.

The modelling approach to study antibody persistence has been use

The modelling approach to study antibody persistence has been used for other vaccine-preventable diseases, including diphtheria [16] and [17], hepatitis A [18], hepatitis B [19], meningitis A [20], pertussis [21] and HPV [22] to address questions of duration of protection Tenofovir supplier and need and timing of boosters. These previous efforts utilize either an exponential-type or a linear modelling approach depending on whether antibody titres were log-transformed or not. While all approaches sought to explain the population-level evolution of antibody titres, not all considered the individual-level of variability with mixed-effect models as we did. By considering different

model structures (linear, piecewise linear, exponential-type) using mixed effects, we were able to study the sensitivity of our conclusions on functional assumptions while capturing individual-level effects. Our predictions required us to extrapolate data beyond the 5 year period of observation, which implicitly assumes that the linear rate of antibody decay (in log-units) must continue after 5 years. Based on our model comparisons, the linear assumption is justified, and this is also supported by antibody persistence

studies for other diseases [17] and [21]. By limiting our main conclusions to 10 years, we were cautious not to extrapolate too far into the future as the uncertainty in predictions increases. In conclusion, the analysis performed enabled us to characterize the antibody decay after JE-CV vaccination as follows: a short period of rapid decline no longer than 6 months followed by a decay at a much slower rate. The results buy BVD-523 obtained also highlighted that one dose of JE-CV provided most adults living in a non-endemic area with seroprotection for more than 10 years. Considering the natural boosting that could occur in a population exposed to circulating virus, our results are probably underestimate the duration of seroprotection in endemic areas. Provided that data become available, a useful extension of this

work would be the estimation of the persistence of JE-CV vaccine-induced antibodies in a paediatric population living in areas where JE is endemic. “
“In Africa the timing of the first dose of measles vaccine at 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl 9 months of age is an uneasy compromise designed to minimize interference from maternal antibody and to provide protection for the maximum number of infants [1]. Unfortunately some children of mothers who have been vaccinated rather than naturally infected with measles lose maternal antibody long before this age. As vaccine coverage has increased more infants have become susceptible to measles at a younger age [2]. Two strategies have been proposed to overcome this problem. Recently expensive mass vaccination campaigns have been deployed to increase coverage and provide an opportunity for two or more doses of measles vaccine.

So, it was revealed that the peaks obtained

from drug-pol

So, it was revealed that the peaks obtained

from drug-polymer matrix not significantly shifted to lower or higher intensity than metformin HCl peak. It means there was not chemical interaction between metformin HCl and ethylcellulose polymer. The X-ray diffraction graph of same are illustrate in Fig. 3. Percentage crystallinity of metformin HCl was 98.6% and gives characteristic intense peaks at 2θ of 17.67 °C, 22.36 °C, 23.26 °C, 24.63 °C, 26.43 °C, 27.23 °C, 28.28 °C, 29.53 °C. EC45, EC100, EC300 coated nanoparticles were 45.9%, 42.4% and 36.9% crystallinity respectively and amorphous in nature. Amorphous character of nanoparticles may be due to ethylcellulose overlapped on metformin HCl which shows the drug is dispersed at molecular level in polymer matrix or intervention of EC

find more molecules arrangement in metformin molecules during solidification or precipitation can cause amorphous nature. Although there were good encapsulation efficiency in all three polymers at different ratios means not necessary to sustained metformin capably. This was clarified in dissolution test of all batches (Fig. 4). As drug-polymer ratio increased the sustainability of formulations also increased. 1:9 ratio was more sustained than other two ratios. EC45, EC100 and EC300 released 64.56 ± 0.29, 58.75 ± 0.12 selleck compound and 44.83 ± 0.09 percent drug respectively within 12 h from more sustained 1:9 ratio formulations. So, EC300 was more sustained than EC45 and EC100. Burst release was observed in low drug-polymer ratios of EC45 and EC100 nanoparticles. After released surface drug in first hour, near about 20–25% drug was released from next to 12 h. As shown in figure this release rate was constant for all nanoparticles formulations. At lower drug-polymer ratios the available polymer concentration may be insufficient to coat all amount of drug, therefore some drug might moved toward the interface of internal and external phase due to surfactant susceptibility migrate toward the surface of ethylcellulose nanoparticles.

During evaporation of organic solvent the drug available on surface of globules get precipitate first and Oxalosuccinic acid stable over there. This drug at the surface released within first hour of dissolution and confers burst release effect.8 and 14 Remaining drug in the core of particle might strongly matrixes with polymer which released slowly over maximum period. Increased in drug-polymer ratios decreased the first high release of metformin HCl and also provide strong binding between drug and polymer. From dissolution study it was also revealed that more viscosity grade ethylcellulose sustained drug efficiently than low viscosity grade ethylcellulose polymer. The order of sustainability of ethylcellulose polymer was EC300 > EC100 > EC45.

Isolates were classified into 3 age groups: group 1: children <5

Isolates were classified into 3 age groups: group 1: children <5 years with isolates from both sterile sites (total 64: 59 blood, 4 cerebrospinal fluid, 1 pleural fluid) and non-sterile sites (total 42: 32 respiratory specimen, 6 ear swab, 2 eye swab, 2 gastric wash), group 2: patients 5–64 years with isolates from sterile sites only (total 62: 53 blood, 3 cerebrospinal fluid, 6 pleural fluid), and group 3: patients >65 years with isolates from sterile sites only (total 46: 44 blood, 2 pleural fluid). In this study, we performed serotyping and analysed serotype this website coverage of PCV-7, PCV-9, PCV-10, PCV-11 and PCV-13. PCV-9 is PCV-7 plus 1 and 5. PCV-10 is PCV-9 plus 7F, PCV-11 is PCV-10

plus 3, PCV-13 is PCV-11 plus 6 A and 19A. To determine capsule serotypes of isolates, we performed the Quellung test [11], using various specific group and factor antisera according to the manufacturer’s guideline from the State Serum Institute, Denmark. Typing was done with an addition of a loopful (a few microliters) of methylene blue 0.3% (w/v) in a bacterial suspension on a glass slide, using a microscope (OYMPUS BX 50 Model U-MD08, Oympus Corporation, Tokyo, SB203580 nmr Japan) with an oil immersion

lens (magnification, 10 × 100). The isolates that were not one of the serotypes included in PCV-7, PCV-9, PCV-10, PCV-11 and PCV-13 vaccines were not further typed and were labeled as nonvaccine types. Bacterial susceptibility of the isolates to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were evaluated by standard microbroth dilution using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 3% lysed horse blood [13] and E-test method (AB Biodisk, Sweden) according to the manufacturer’s guideline. S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 was used as the control. The penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate or resistant category according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations [13]. This new criteria take into account whether penicillin is given orally or parenterally and whether a patient has meningitis.

Under the former criteria, the isolates from all clinical syndrome and penicillin routes, were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, and resistant if MIC were ≥0.06, 0.12–1, and ≥2 μg/ml, respectively. Under the new criteria, the isolates are classified into 3 categories, almost i.e., meningitis with parenteral penicillin treatment (susceptible and resistant if MIC are ≤0.06 and ≥0.12 μg/ml, respectively); nonmeningitis with parenteral penicillin treatment (susceptible, intermediate and resistant if MIC are ≤2, 4 and ≥8 μg/ml, respectively); and non-meningitis with oral penicillin treatment (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant if MIC were ≤0.06, 0.12–1, and ≥2 μg/ml), respectively. The criterion for resistance to ciprofloxacin was MIC ≥4 μg/ml [14]; S. aureus ATCC 25923 was used as the control. The descriptive analysis was used in this study.