2 %) had SCC of the cervical and cervicothoracic

2 %) had SCC of the cervical and cervicothoracic click here esophagus. Thirty-five patients (53.0 %) underwent cervical esophageal resection (CE) and 31 underwent total esophagectomy (TE). In 39 patients (59.1 %), the larynx was preserved. Thirteen patients (19.7 %) underwent

multimodal treatment.

Overall postoperative morbidity was 69.7 % and reoperation rate reached 28.8 %. TE (P = 0.03) and larynx preservation (P = 0.02) were followed by a higher rate of non-lung infections compared with CE and pharyngolaryngectomy, respectively. Pulmonary complications have been observed more frequently after larynx preservation (P = 0.02). Hospital mortality was 9.1 %. Four patients died after TE (12.9 %) and two patients died after CE (5.7 %). In all of them, the larynx had been preserved (15.4 %). Overall, 53 patients (80.3 %) died until follow-up. One-year and 5-year survival in patients with the major tumor burden at the cervicothoracic site was 35.7 and 0 %.

CE can be recommended as long as R0 resection is warranted. The advantage of larynx preservation GSK126 is gained by higher morbidity and mortality rates and may not be recommended as standard procedure. Surgery may not be appropriate for advanced SCC in the cervicothoracic region.”
“The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piper amalago L. by hydrodistillation

was analyzed by CG-MS. The yield essential oil from fresh plant material was 0.1%. The main compounds found were beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (26 %), 7-epi-alpha-eudesmol (21.84 %), epi-alpha-cadinol (12.70 %), and n-hexyl-benzoate (12.29 %). The essential oil demonstrated antifungal activity against nine Candida strains, as shown using the agar-diffusion

“Transthoracic Ivor Lewis esophagectomy is a surgical standard therapy for esophageal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in mid- and long-term survivors.

Patients with cancer-free survival of at least PKC412 manufacturer 12 months after esophageal resection for cancer were identified from a prospectively maintained database. EORTC questionnaires were sent out to assess health-related general (QLQ-C30) and esophageal cancer-specific (QLQ-OES18) quality of life (QOL). A numeric score was calculated in each conceptual area and compared with reference data.

One hundred forty-seven patients completed the self-rated questionnaires. They were 121 men and 26 women with a mean age of 63.4 (21-83) years; median FU was 39 (12-139) months. Global health status, functional scales, and symptom scores were significantly reduced compared with healthy reference populations. Also, there was no significant impact of tumor histology, neoadjuvant treatment, minimally invasive approach, or duration of follow-up on HRQL. However, more than half of the patients reported a HRQL similar to that of the healthy reference population.

In response to these doubts, evidence

In response to these doubts, evidence JQ1 solubility dmso of relevant practices of surveillance, registration, diagnosis, awareness and immunization is presented as taken from archived data and interviews with experienced medical practitioners. There were changes that could have had neutral, negative or positive impacts on recorded TBE incidence, but the variable timing in these changes at both national and regional levels is not consistent with their having been responsible for the epidemiological patterns observed in the early 1990s.”
“The objective of the present study was to investigate the friction and wear mechanisms of hydrogenated amorphous

carbon (a-C:H) films sliding against different counterparts. Friction tests were performed by a reciprocating ball-on-disk tribometer with an applied load of 5 N, amplitude of 5 mm, and frequency of 5 Hz, in ambient air at room temperature. The coefficient of friction (COF) was consistent with the varied tendency of the contact area of the counterparts on films and also coincided with the varied tendency of the coverage of transfer MK-2206 supplier film on friction ball

surface. It was important to point out that the coverage of the transfer film on the counterpart surface was inversely proportional to the contact area. Furthermore, COF of a-C:H films against different pairs was independent with the film graphitization level. Additionally, wear rate of a-C:H films GW-572016 mouse against different friction pairs was discussed in details. Some indexes including hardness ratio of pair and film, elastic energy

density of the friction pair, and effective plastic index were employed to predicting the wear behavior of the a-C:H films sliding against different counterparts. Compared with other indexes, the effective plastic index showed best performance. Description of physical meanings and some formula derivation of the effective plastic index of film with applied load were also performed in this work. The results increased our understanding of the physical mechanism of a-C:H films sliding against pairs, which were able to guide the application of a-C:H films in the future industrial fields. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3619798]“
“This study investigates the patho-physiological implications of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the two most common forms of dementia, namely Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Forty-five consecutive patients diagnosed with either probable AD or DLB, and 16 individuals with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) were investigated using diffusion tensor MRI. Thirteen healthy subjects (HS) were also studied as controls.

These finfings may modify in the future the clinical approach to

These finfings may modify in the future the clinical approach to these diseases. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle

and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed buy Elafibranor in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments

and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, selleck screening library we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms.”
“Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators

and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More LY2603618 mw and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence Fc epsilon RI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FceRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FceRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the V-H3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FceRI-dependent mast cell activation.

Holmium laser ablation represents a simple, safe and efficacious

Holmium laser ablation represents a simple, safe and efficacious procedure to manage intravesical mesh complications following TVT procedure.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are thought to cause the majority of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, other bacterial pathogens may contribute to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Here,

obligate anaerobes were identified in a cross-sectional study, and cell numbers and antibiotic susceptibilities of facultative selleck compound and obligate anaerobes from 114 sputum samples from nine children and 36 adults with CF were determined. Furthermore, in 12 CF patients, we investigated whether conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, administered during acute exacerbations, would affect the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Fifteen genera of obligate anaerobes were identified in 91% of the CF patients. Cell numbers (mean: 2.2 x 10(7) +/- standard deviation 6.9 x 10(7) CFU/mL of sputum sample) were comparable to those of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were most prevalent. Infection with selleck kinase inhibitor P. aeruginosa did not increase the likelihood that obligate anaerobes are present in sputum specimens. Single obligate anaerobic species persisted

for up to 11 months in sputum plugs in vivo. Patients with and without obligate anaerobes in sputum specimens did not differ in lung function. Intravenous therapy directed against P. aeruginosa during acute exacerbations increased lung function, but did not reduce the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobic species differed widely in their patterns of resistance against meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, 3-deazaneplanocin A ic50 clindamycin, metronidazole and ceftazidime. In 58% of patients with acute exacerbations, obligate anaerobes were detected that were resistant to the antibiotics used for treatment. Antibiotic therapy, optimized to target anaerobes in addition to P. aeruginosa, may improve the management of CF lung disease.”
“Cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Genes whose products

play a critical role in regulation of the immune response include the HLA antigen and cytokine families of genes. Oral cancer is common in men in developing countries, and its frequency is increased by using betel-quid, tobacco, and alcohol. The association between certain HLA Class I and Class II haplotypes and cancer has been documented in a variety of tumors. There was no previous data concerning the association of specific HLA Class II DQA1, DQB1 alleles, or haplotypes with oral cancer patients. In this study, we enrolled 134 Taiwanese patients with histologically confirmed oral cancer and 268 age- and gender-matched healthy Taiwanese adults as control group to investigate the association between HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1 allele frequencies and oral cancer patients by using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers.

She remains in continuous clinical and hematologic remission with

She remains in continuous clinical and hematologic remission with an ADAMTS13 level of 108%% at 60 weeks from rituximab therapy and 124 weeks from her second relapse. This case report suggests that monitoring ADAMTS13 level at regular intervals in recurrent TTP may help us identify patients at risk for further relapse;

and such a relapse may be prevented, or at least delayed with timely rituximab therapy, thus reducing morbidity from relapsed TTP and its treatment.</.”
“Polyethylene grafted with itaconic acid was subjected to weathering under laboratory accelerated conditions. YH25448 price The course of the photo-oxidative degradation process of that material was studied by FTIR spectroscopy both through quantitative measurements of changes in absorbance values at selected wave numbers and through measurements of surface area values for absorption bands which were separated by means of deconvolution. The use of both JNJ-26481585 clinical trial those procedures of quantitative determinations resulted in a general conclusion that the oxidation process was initiated from the very first moment of irradiation, and it produced ketones, acids, esters (intramolecular and of acetate type), peracids, peresters, hydroperoxides, and alcohols. The molecular weight values and gel number values, which were established as well, pointed out that oxidation was accompanied by cracking of polymer macromolecules,

and also by polymer crosslinking to a limited degree. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: This study evaluated the outcomes of patients with complex or persistent thoracobiliary fistulae following penetrating liver trauma, who underwent endoscopic biliary intervention at a tertiary referral centre.

Methods: All patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and endoscopic biliary intervention for traumatic thoracobiliary fistulae between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated. Bile duct injuries were classified according to their biliary anatomic location on cholangiography and type of pulmonary communication.

Results: ISRIB manufacturer Twenty-two

patients had thoracobiliary (pleurobiliary, n = 19; bronchobiliary, n = 3) fistulae. The site of the bile duct injury was identified in 20 patients on cholangiography. These 20 patients underwent either sphincterotomy and biliary stenting (n = 18) or sphincterotomy alone (n = 2). In 17 patients the fistulae resolved after the initial endoscopic intervention. Three patients required secondary stenting with replacement of the initial stent. Three patients developed mild pancreatitis after stenting and one stent migrated and was replaced. All fistulae healed after endoscopic treatment. In 18 patients the stents were removed 4 weeks after bile drainage ceased. Three of the 22 patients required a thoracotomy for infected loculated pleural collections after initial catheter drainage.

During this period the

proportion of USA300 strains incre

During this period the

proportion of USA300 strains increased dramatically.”
“Objective: Mutations in the EIF2AK3 gene are known to cause Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS), a rare recessive disorder characterized by early-onset diabetes, skeletal abnormalities, and liver dysfunction. To date, studies on WRS have revealed several mutation types MI-503 Epigenetics inhibitor leading to onset of the disease. In the present study, we analyzed the EIF2AK3 gene in a 10-year-old WRS patient and his parents to study the clinical features and the mechanism for genetic onset of WRS.

Method: A patient diagnosed with WRS and his parents were chosen as research subjects. PCR techniques were used to amplify the 17 exons of the EIF2AK3 gene and DNA direct assay techniques were

used for gene mutation analysis.

Result: Gene mutation analysis revealed a 1798 A/T heterozygous mutation in exon 9 of the patient’s EIF2AK3 gene. This nonsense mutation can lead to a C-stop and result in a truncated protein of 532 amino acid residues in length (C532STOP). The patient’s parents are nonconsanguineous and the patient’s father carries the same mutation, while the mother carries no EIF2AK3 mutation.

Conclusion: ETF2AK3 gene mutations can lead to the onset of S3I-201 cell line WRS. The study A-1210477 datasheet results provide knowledge that furthers our understanding of the genetic mechanism of WRS.”
“BACKGROUND: The total artificial heart (TAH) consists of two implantable pneumatic pumps that replace the heart and operate at a fixed ejection rate and ejection pressure.

We evaluated the blood pressure (BP) response to exercise and exercise performance in patients with a TAH compared to those with a with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of 37 patients who received a TAH and 12 patients implanted with an LVAD. We measured the BP response during exercise, exercise duration and change in tolerated exercise workload over an 8-week period.

RESULTS: In patients with a TAH, baseline BP was 120/69 +/- 13/13, exercise BP v. as 118/72 +/- 15/10 and post-exercise BP was 120/72 +/- 14/12. Mean arterial BP did not change with exercise in patients with a TAH (88 +/- 10 vs 88 +/- 11; p = 0.8), but increased in those with an LVAD (87 +/- 8 vs 95 +/- 13; p < 0.001). Although the mean arterial BP (MAP) was negatively correlated with metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved during exercise, the association was not statistically significant (beta = -0.1, p = 0.4). MAP correlated positively with METs achieved in patients with LVADs (MAP: beta = 0.26, p = 0.04).

The aim of this study was to determine the associations between C

The aim of this study was to determine the associations between CNV in CCL3L1 gene and the rejection risk in liver-transplant recipients. The 266 Han-Chinese patients and 135 volunteers were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA and mRNA samples were obtained from the whole peripheral blood; a quantitative real-time PCR-based assay was carried out to determine the copy number of CCL3L1, and real-time PCR was carried out to calculate the CCL3L1/CCL3 mRNA ratio. The CNV distributions in patients and health controls had no significant differences. Copy number in acute rejection group (AR) shifted to higher number compared with non-acute rejection group (4.74 +/- 1.87 vs. 3.88 +/-

2.13, p = 0.017). Moreover, patients with higher CCL3L1 copies (>= 3 copies) had a significantly higher rejection risk than patients lower copies CCL3L1 (OR C59 mw = 3.85, 95% CI, 1.14-13.04; p = 0.021). No association was found between CNV and rejection grades. In conclusion, liver PKC412 clinical trial transplant recipients with high copy number of CCL3L1 gene had a significant higher risk of AR. CNV might be a novel genetic diversity that correlated with allograft rejection.”
“To assess diversity of rotavirus strains in Lilongwe, Malawi, we conducted a cross-sectional study of children with acute gastroenteritis, July 2005-June 2007. Serotype G12 was identified in 30 (5%) of 546 rotavirus-positive fecal

specimens. The G12 strain possessed multiple electropherotypes and P-types, but their viral protein 7 sequences were closely related, indicating that reassortment has occurred.”
“Gastric adenocarcinoma is not uncommon in the adult population, but in the pediatric population it is an extremely rare entity. A 13-year-old boy was referred to a pediatric oncology unit for evaluation of a tumor in the upper abdomen. Further investigation revealed an advanced stage gastric carcinoma with metastases suggestive for a hereditary cause. Awareness for uncommon diagnoses is a key issue in regard of accurate treatment and overall prognosis.”
“In this paper, we present a model for the oxidation of silicon nanowires (NWs) based on a modification of the cylindrical

Deal and Grove equation and click here taking into account stress effects associated with non-uniform deformation of the oxide by viscous flow. The validity of this model has been tested on a set of experimental results describing the thermal oxidation of suspended silicon NWs. The NWs oxidation is examined upon different atmospheres (pure O(2) and H(2)O) and at different thermal budgets by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The good agreement between the experimental results and the simulations confirm the validity of the key model assumptions: the SiO(2) flow can be approximated as purely viscous and the non-linear effects of shear stress on oxide viscosity [S. M. Hu, J. Appl.

Recently published clinical trials have been focused on comparati

Recently published clinical trials have been focused on comparative efficacy, cardiovascular safety of biologics and potential anti-TNF therapy discontinuation in patients with RA.”
“Pathological breast conditions are rare in childhood and adolescence. The spectrum of breast disease in pediatric patients is different from that in adults and most lesions are benign. Fibroadenomas are the most common type of breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women. These lesions occasionally develop into very large masses, particularly in adolescent girls. Such masses are called solitary giant juvenile fibroadenomas, LDN-193189 in vitro and local recurrence is unusual. We report here a case of recurrent

juvenile giant breast fibroadenoma in a girl with Turner’s syndrome.”
“Purpose of GSK2399872A review

To provide an update on the development of small molecular compounds as novel therapeutics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The development of such orally available agents has long been hoped for in rheumatology; in the past year, it has become

clear that the expectations are becoming fulfilled.

Recent findings

Over the past year, a large number of clinical trials have been published or presented reporting positive therapeutic results with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, a large class of orally available drugs that are also being developed in other medical fields. This class of drugs includes the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, and data on tofacitinib published during the past year have attested to the biologic-like efficacy of this drug and supported its subsequent U. S. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) approval. Positive clinical trial results

have also been reported for several other JAK inhibitors including baricitinib. Several other JAK inhibitors and other small molecular entities are also being developed in studies ranging from preclinical models to large clinical trials.


Tyrosine kinase inhibition has emerged as a major new direction in rheumatoid arthritis therapy.”
“Lectures are of great value to students. However, with the introduction of hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) curricula into most medical schools, the emphasis on lectures has decreased. This paper discusses how lectures can P505-15 molecular weight be used in a PBL curriculum, what makes a great lecture, and how to deliver a lecture that fits with these changes.”
“Objective-To determine whether severity of periodontal disease (PD) was associated with systemic health indices in dogs and whether treatment of PD altered systemic health indices.

Design-Prospective cohort study. Animals-38 dogs.

Procedures-Healthy dogs with clinical signs of PD were included in the study. Physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, a CBC, urine evaluation, measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and a microalbuminuria test were performed prior to treatment of PD.

05) and remained at 8 2 degrees +/- 3 6 degrees (P > 0 05) 1 y

05) and remained at 8.2 degrees +/- 3.6 degrees (P > 0.05) 1 year later. Adjacent disc heights remained constant. No serious complications or fixation failures were observed during follow-up.

Conclusion. ASSDF provides a novel and effective surgical option for treating Denis B type QNZ in vivo fracture with neurologic deficiency.”
“Novel polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-supported pyrrolidine-thiourea has been first synthesized in a simple route. The target product was used as a bifunctional organocatalyst

for the direct asymmetric aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and arylaldehydes. Effects of solvent and catalyst loading on reaction have been explored. It was found that even at a small dosage of 2.5 mol %, the catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity and stereoselectivities at room temperature in aqueous medium. Additionally, the catalyst can be reused at least for three times. The PVC resin can provide hydrophobic microenvironment for the substrates and catalytic center (pyrrolidine and thiourea moiety) to contact closely. The aldol reaction may take place at the interface between the polymer and aqueous phase. And the results indicated that the thiourea moiety of catalyst had an important effect on the activity and

selectivity of the aldol reaction. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 1506-1511, 2011″
“Podophyllotoxin Selleck Apoptosis Compound Library is considered as an outstanding anti-tumor agent against lung cancer which is commercially extracted by the percolation of warm ethanol through packed beds of dried rhizomes of Podophyllum emodi SB273005 cell line or Podophyllum peltatum. Radio frequency (RF) heating can be used for uniform heating of the packed bed during the extraction. Based on local volume averaging (LVA) and local thermal equilibrium (LTE), a mathematical model with variable properties was developed for transient heat transfer

during RF-assisted packed bed extraction of podophyllotoxin. The validity of LVA and LTE was assessed by evaluating the length scale, time scale, and convective constraint. A control function was included in the model to take into account the effect of a temperature controller functioning during the actual RF-assisted packed bed extraction. For a vertical packed bed reactor subjected to RF heating, two governing equations associated with the packed bed and the solvent phase at the top of the bed were numerically solved using implicit-finite difference and Gauss-Seidel methods. The simulation results had a good agreement with the experimental data. Heat transfer simulation was performed for different flow rates of ethanol/water solution with different dielectric properties during the RF-assisted packed bed extraction process. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Case-control study.

Objective. To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) on the disc deformation at the adjacent level and at the level one above the adjacent level during end ranges of lumbar motion.

The ocular history was significant for uneventful cataract surger

The ocular history was significant for uneventful cataract surgery approximately 3 years earlier. Pseudophakic bullous keratopathy was diagnosed and Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) performed. During surgery, a retained nuclear fragment was discovered in the anterior chamber. The fragment was removed and the DSAEK completed successfully. At the 4-month follow-up, the symptoms had completely resolved and the uncorrected distance visual acuity in the affected eye was 20/40.”
“Experiments were conducted at 3 US locations (CA, ID, and TX) to determine the effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax, Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE)

and duration of zilpaterol feeding on performance and carcass merit of finishing steers and heifers. At each site, 160 steers and 160 heifers were stratified within sex by initial BW (study see more d – 1) and assigned randomly Selleck PLX3397 within BW strata to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design (4 blocks/treatment for each sex). The 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (20 or 40 d duration of zilpaterol feeding) factorial arrangement of treatments. When included

in the diet, zilpaterol was supplemented at 8.3 mg/kg of DM. Each pen consisted of 10 animals. Each animal was individually weighed unshrunk on d 1, 21 or 41, and 66 of the experiment. Following d 66, cattle were slaughtered and carcass data collected. Feeding zilpaterol increased (P < 0.01) final BW of steers and heifers by 11.6 and 6.7 kg, respectively. In addition, feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride increased (P = 0.001) ADG 36 and 18%, and increased (P < 0.001) G: F 28 and 21% for steers and heifers, respectively.

For heifers, DMI was selleck compound decreased (P < 0.001) 6.2% when zilpaterol was fed, whereas in steers DMI tended (P = 0.09) to be decreased 2%. For steers and heifers, feeding zilpaterol increased (P < 0.001) HCW 16.4 and 12.1 kg, dressing percentage 1.5 percentage units for each sex, and LM area 8.23 and 6.37 cm(2), respectively. Twelfth-rib fat (P >= 0.12) and KPH (P >= 0.70) were not affected by feeding zilpaterol to steers or heifers. Feeding zilpaterol decreased (i.e., improved; P = 0.02) calculated yield grade of steer and heifer carcasses. Marbling score (P = 0.002) and quality grade (P = 0.002) were decreased when zilpaterol hydrochloride was fed to steers, and the decrease in marbling score and quality grade tended to be greater when zilpaterol was fed for 40 compared with 20 d (zilpaterol x duration interaction, P = 0.07). For heifers, marbling score tended (P = 0.07) to be decreased and quality grade was decreased (P = 0.05) when zilpaterol hydrochloride was fed. In general, it appears from these data that zilpaterol hydrochloride fed for 20 to 40 d at the end of the finishing period enhances growth performance and carcass muscle deposition for steers and heifers.