In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants’ means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more valuable for learning to perform a well-organized means-end action. Infants were given the opportunity to both practice cloth-pulling and view modeling of the action performed by an adult throughout the session. Infants saw either the same toy or the same cloth in successive trials, so that the goal or means were highlighted prior to modeling of the action. All infants improved throughout Ivacaftor chemical structure the session regardless
of which aspect of the event was highlighted. Beyond this general improvement, repetition of goals supported more rapid learning and more sustained learning than did repetition of means. These findings provide novel evidence that, at the origins of means-end action production, emphasizing the goal that structures an action facilitates the learning of new means-end actions. “
“Infants and their mothers
participated in a longitudinal study of the sequelae of infant goal-blockage responses. Tipifarnib research buy Four-month-old infants participated in a standard contingency learning and goal-blockage procedure during which anger and sad facial expressions to the blockage were coded. When infants were 12 and 20 months old, mothers completed a questionnaire about their children’s tantrums. Tantrum scores increased with age and boys tended to show more tantrum behavior than girls. Anger expressed to goal blockage at 4 months was unrelated to tantrum behavior. There was a gender by sad expression interaction. Girls who expressed sadness in response to the goal blockage had lower total tantrum scores than boys; otherwise
there was no difference. These results suggest that tantrums of infants who Parvulin display sad, not anger expression, in response to goal blockage, are differentially influenced by children’s gender. “
“The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous audiovisual, and asynchronous audiovisual. Infants looked longer toward Sesame Street stimuli than geometric patterns, and infants also looked longer during multimodal audiovisual (synchronous and asynchronous) presentations than during unimodal visual presentations. There was a three-way interaction of age, stimulus type, and stimulus modality. Significant differences were found within and between age groups related to stimulus modality (visual or audiovisual) while viewing Sesame Street clips. No significant interaction was found between age and stimulus type while infants viewed dynamic geometric patterns.