Here we investigate how the activity of the corresponding glycosyltransferase
(GT) in Arabidopsis thaliana (atDGD2) depends on local bilayer properties by analyzing structural and activity features of recombinant protein. Fold recognition and sequence analyses revealed a two-domain GT-B monotopic structure, present in other plant and bacterial glycolipid GTs, such as the major chloroplast GalGalDAG GT atDGD1. Modeling led to the identification of catalytically important residues in the active site of atDGD2 by site-directed mutagenesis. The DGD synthases share unique bilayer interface segments containing conserved tryptophan residues that are crucial for activity and for membrane association. PD98059 datasheet More detailed localization studies and liposome binding analyses indicate differentiated anchor and substrate-binding functions for these separated enzyme interface regions. Anionic phospholipids, but not curvature-increasing nonbilayer lipids, strongly stimulate enzyme activity. From our studies, we propose a model for bilayer “control” of enzyme activity, where two tryptophan segments act as interface anchor points to keep the substrate region close to the membrane surface. Binding of the acceptor substrate is achieved by interaction of positive Fedratinib charges in a surface cluster of lysines, arginines, and histidines with the surrounding anionic
phospholipids. The diminishing phospholipid fraction during phosphate shortage stress will then set the new GalGalDAG/phospholipid balance by decreasing stimulation of atDGD2.”
“Anabaena sp. CDK and cancer strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can fix N-2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena open reading frames alr4167 and alr3187 encode, respectively, an ATPase subunit, BgtA, and a composite protein bearing periplasmic substrate-binding and transmembrane domains, BgtB, of an ABC-type high-affinity
basic amino acid uptake transporter (Bgt). Open reading frame alr4167 is clustered with open reading frames alr4164, alr4165 and alr4166 that encode a periplasmic substrate-binding protein, NatF, and transmembrane proteins NatG and NatH respectively. The NatF, NatG, NatH and BgtA proteins constitute an ABC-type uptake transporter for acidic and neutral polar amino acids (N-II). The Bgt and N-II transport systems thus share the ATPase subunit, BgtA. These transporters together with the previously characterized ABC-type uptake transporter for proline and hydrophobic amino acids (N-I) account for more than 98% of the amino acid transport activity exhibited by Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. In contrast to N-I that is expressed only in vegetative cells, the Bgt and N-II systems are present in both vegetative cells and heterocysts. Whereas Bgt is dispensable for diazotrophic growth, N-II appears to contribute together with N-I to the diazotrophic physiology of this cyanobacterium.
This condition is often caused by nondisjunction events during meiosis. UPD has been reported as a rare cause of the autosomal recessive disorder and aberrant expression of imprinted genes that are expressed from only one parental allele, either maternal or paternal. Maternal
and/or paternal UPD for chromosome 7 is the most frequently observed UPD after UPD15. Here we developed and validated, for the first time, an effective, CE-based method for a rapid and economic detection based on two-fluorescent CA4P STR multiplexes.”
“Nodular fasciitis is a rare and benign inflammatory condition; however, it can be misdiagnosed as a malignant lesion. We report a unique case of nodular fasciitis arising from the maxillary sinus in a 2-year-old child. Our English literature review (PubMed search), revealed a total of 3 cases published as nodular fasciitis in the para-nasal sinuses, each with a different management approach.”
“BACKGROUND: The evidence on the impact of physical activity oil back pain ill children and adolescents has been contradicting. It has also been shown that the physical activity cannot accurately be estimated in children using questionnaires.\n\nPURPOSE: The aim Kinase Inhibitor Library of this study was to establish if physical activity in childhood had any impact on back pain reporting in early adolescence (3 years later), using an objective instrumental measurement of physical
activity.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort Study.\n\nPATIENT SAMPLE: Representative random sample of Danish children from the city of Odense sampled at age 9 years and followed-up at age 12 years.\n\nOUTCOME MEASURES: The 1-month period prevalence
of back pain (neck pain. mid back pain, and low back pain) was established using a structured interview.\n\nMETHODS: Physical activity was assessed with the MTI-accelerometer. The accelerometer provides a minute-by-minute measure of the physical activity performed. An overall measure of physical activity and time spent ill high activity were studied in relation to back pain using logistic regression. The analyses were performed oil the total sample and then stratified on back pain (yes/no) PP2 Angiogenesis inhibitor at baseline.\n\nRESULTS: High physical activity (HPA) levels seem to protect against future low back pain and appear to actually “treat” and reduce the odds Of future mid back pain. When comparing the least active children to the most active children, the least active had it multivariate odds ratio of 3.3 of getting low back pain and 2.7 of getting mid back pain 3 years later. When stratified oil back pain at baseline, this effect on mid back pain was especially noticeable in children who had had mid back pain already at baseline, with an odds ratio of 7.2.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: HPA in childhood seems to protect against low back pain and mid back pain in early adolescence.
“In studies GSK923295 ic50 of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),
individual metal nanoparticle and particle assemblies introduce enhancement of electromagnetic fields. However, the contributions to enhancement due to the substrate supporting the particles are yet to be studied analytically. In this communication, we present an analytical method to investigate the effect of a substrate with realistic layers in SERS. The proposed method quantifies the effect of a substrate on the electric field on the nanoparticles surface in SERS experiments. By applying the proposed method, optimal constructions of a substrate can be obtained to maximize the surface electric field while a poorly constructed one can be avoided. The maximization can lead to a high Raman enhancement factor. The method is verified using numerical simulations.”
“Background: Pruritis caused by
atopic see more dermatitis (AD) is not always well controlled by topical corticosteroid therapy, but use of tacrolimus often helps to soothe such intractable pruritis in clinical settings. Objective: To determine the anti-pruritic efficacy of topical tacrolimus in treating AD in induction and maintenance therapy. Methods: Prior to the study, patients were randomly allocated into two groups, induction therapy followed by tacrolimus monotherapy maintenance, and induction therapy followed by emollient-only maintenance. In the induction therapy, the patients were allowed to use topical tacrolimus and emollients in addition to a low dose (<10 g/week) of topical steroids. Patients showing relief from pruritis were allowed to proceed to maintenance therapy. Recurrence of pruritis in maintenance therapy was examined as a major endpoint. Results: Two-thirds
of patients (44/68; 64.7%) showed relief from pruritis after induction therapy. Pruritis recurred in 23.8% (5/21) of the tacrolimus monotherapy group and in 100% (21/21) of the emollient group during maintenance period, a difference that was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of topical tacrolimus is effective in controlling pruritis of AD compared to emollient. (Ann Dermatol 24(2) 144 similar to 150, 2012)”
“Basidiobolus ranarum (Entomophthoromycotina) very rarely affects the gastrointestinal find more (GI) tract. To date, reported paediatric GI basidiobolomycosis cases are 27 worldwide; 19 from Saudi Arabia and 8 from other parts of the world. Often these cases present a diagnostic dilemma, are prone to misdiagnosis and lack of disease confirmation by proper molecular methodologies. The fungal mass removed by surgery is usually sent for conciliar histopathology, isolation by fungal cultures and final molecular testing for basidiobolomycosis. The incidence of basidiobolomycoses, their predisposing factors and the molecular diagnosis of the fungus causing the disease in combination with a phylogenetic framework are reviewed.
(C) 2014 published by Frontline Medical Communications”
“Morphological studies of the gastrointestinal tract of blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna) are scarce. In view of the paucity of information regarding the digestive tract of macaws, this study aims to describe the gross anatomical features (oesophagus to cloaca) as part of a broad study of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of these birds. Three animals (two males and one female) adult macaws P005091 clinical trial were anatomically dissected from the oropharynx to the cloaca to expose the GIT. The oesophagus was identified as a muscle-membranous tube continuous with the crop, which was intimately attached to the skin. The internal
longitudinal folds of the cervical oesophagus were sparser cranial to the crop and less evident compared to the portion caudal to the crop. The duodenum began in the pylorus and was grey-coloured exhibiting a large lumen. The jejunum was formed by loops in a spiral-fashion model supported by mesojejunum. The ileum was also composed by small loops and was continuous with the colo-rectum
forming the large intestine, because the caeca were absent. The large intestine was short, median in position, suspended in the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity by mesentery and ended in the cloaca. The GIT was similar to the basic patterns in birds, in general, and also presented new unreported morphological data that might be important when studying nutrition and health of the macaws.”
“Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is emerging as an important energy fuel source during muscle contraction and TH-302 solubility dmso are adaptively increased in response to exercise, without adverse physiological effects. Paradoxically, elevated IMTG content in obese and type 2 diabetics has been linked to insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of IMTG pools in physiology SN-38 purchase and pathology. Two separate views suggest that IMTG dynamics are determinant for skeletal
muscle fat oxidation, and that disruption of IMTG dynamics facilitates the accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates such as diacylglycerols and ceramides that interfere with insulin signaling. Thus, understanding the factors that control IMTG dynamics is crucial. Here we discuss recent literature describing the regulation of IMTG pools with a particular emphasis on lipases and lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins.”
“Prohormone convertases (PCs) 1 and 2 are the primary endoproteases involved in the post-translational processing of proThyrotropin Releasing Hormone (proTRH) to give rise to TRH and other proposed biologically active non-TRH peptides. Previous evidence suggests that PC1 is responsible for most proTRH cleavage events. Here, we used the PC1 and PC2 knockout (KO) mouse models to examine the effects of PC1 or PC2 loss on proTRH processing.
Copyright (C) 2013, Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: A primary motive for adolescents and young adults to
nonmedically use prescription stimulants is to help them study. Adolescents and young adults are using prescription stimulants, such as Adderall (amphetamine Selleck AZD7762 aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, dextroamphetamine sulfate), as performance enhancers in certain social domains, including academics and sports. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the nonmedical use of Adderall (a commonly prescribed stimulant used nonmedically) among adolescents who participate in competitive sports. Method: The Monitoring the Future survey for 2010 and 2011, a representative sample of 8th- and 10th-grade students, surveyed involvement in competitive sports and nonmedical Adderall use among 21,137 adolescents. Past-year nonmedical use of Adderall
served as the main outcome measure. Logistic regression analyses were run to examine whether sports participation in general and involvement in different types of competitive sports participation were associated with past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males and females. Results: The odds of past-year nonmedical use of Adderall among males were higher for male respondents who participated in lacrosse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.52, 95% CI [1.20, 5.29]) and wrestling (AOR = 1.74, 95% Selleckchem VX809 CI [1.01, 2.98]). However, no particular sport among females was found
to be associated with past-year nonmedical use of Adderall. Conclusions: Certain PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 ic50 extracurricular activities, such as high-contact sports, may influence male participants to misuse prescription stimulants as performance enhancers either on or off the playing field.”
“Little is known of the bacterial community of tropical rainforest leaf litter and how it might differ from temperate forest leaf litter and from the soils underneath. We sampled leaf litter in a similarly advanced stage of decay, and for comparison, we also sampled the surface layer of soil, at three tropical forest sites in Malaysia and four temperate forest sites in South Korea. Illumina sequencing targeting partial bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene revealed that the bacterial community composition of both temperate and tropical litter is quite distinct from the soils underneath. Litter in both temperate and tropical forest was dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while soil is dominated by Acidobacteria and, to a lesser extent, Proteobacteria. However, bacterial communities of temperate and tropical litter clustered separately from one another on an ordination. The soil bacterial community structures were also distinctive to each climatic zone, suggesting that there must be a climate-specific biogeographical pattern in bacterial community composition.
All rights reserved.”
“Background: NU7441 molecular weight Little is known about the differences in the immunopathogenesis between elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) and younger-onset RA (YORA) and the factors responsible for their clinical characteristics. Objective: It was the aim of this study to investigate proinflammatory cytokines of EORA patients
and compare them with those of YORA patients. Methods: Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma were determined by cytometric bead array in 86 patients with active EORA, in 76 patients with active YORA and in 30 healthy controls. Disease activity of RA was assessed using the 28-joint disease activity score. Erosion scores were recorded using a modified version of the Sharp method. Levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were determined by ELISA, and levels of rheumatoid factor-IgM and C-reactive protein were measured by nephelometry. Results: A higher proportion of men and a higher frequency of acute onset with selleck chemicals llc constitutional symptoms and comorbidities were observed in EORA compared with YORA patients. Increased levels of serum IL-1 alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-8 were positively correlated with the 28-joint disease activity score, and elevated levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha were positively correlated with erosion scores for both
groups of RA patients. Significantly higher IL-6 levels and lower TNF-alpha levels were found in EORA compared with YORA patients. Higher levels of serum IL-6 were found in EORA patients with polymyalgia rheumatica-like symptoms than in those without and were also noted in male patients with EORA compared with female patients. Multivariate analysis showed that high levels of TNF-alpha were associated with the occurrence of constitutional symptoms, and high levels of IL-1 beta were associated with the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in EORA patients. Conclusion: EORA patients appear
to have differences in clinical characteristics and the patterns of proinflammatory cytokines when compared with YORA patients. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The anode biofilm in a microbial fuel cell NCT-501 cell line (MFC) is composed of diverse populations of bacteria, many of whose capacities for electricity generation are unknown. To identify functional populations in these exoelectrogenic communities, a culture-dependent approach based on dilution to extinction was combined with culture-independent community analysis. We analyzed the diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs with different anode surfaces using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based on the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the bacteria enriched in all reactors belonged primarily to five phylogenetic groups: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria, and gamma-Proteobacteria.
In this article we examine the ways in which selective protein degradation provides an extra dimension to the regulation of such signalling cascades. We discuss (i) how both lysosomal and proteasomal systems are used to attenuate kinase and rho family GTPase signalling, thereby coupling activation with degradation, (ii) signal propagation contingent upon the selective degradation of inhibitory components, exemplified by the degradation of I kappa B to activate NF-kappa B signalling, and (iii)
tonic suppression of signalling pathways by turnover of the transcription factors beta-catenin and p53. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization Microtubule Associat inhibitor (TACE) is an essential therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom administering other treatments such as liver transplantation, resection or local therapy is not feasible. The purpose of our study was to determine the independent risk factors for one-year recurrence and two-year mortality in patients treated solely with TACE.\n\nMethods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 34 consecutive patients (Group 1) with incident HCC who were treated solely with epirubicin-based TACE between April 2004 and March 2009. A subgroup
analysis was performed among 24 patients (Group 2) who underwent complete Apoptosis inhibitor TACE confirmed with abdominal computed tomography (CT) one month later. Tumor recurrence was evaluated using contrast CT every three months after the initial TACE. We calculated Kaplan-Meier estimates and performed a multiple regression analysis using a Cox-proportional hazard model.\n\nResults The patients in Group 1 (men, 59%), all of whom had liver cirrhosis, underwent TACE as the sole therapy for HCC. Kaplan-Meier estimates revealed a two-year survival rate [95% CI] of 70% [48-84%]. For the non-Child A patients, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI] for two-year survival was
7.1 [1.06-51.7]. In Group 2, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the one-year recurrence rate [95% CI] was 61% [42-81%]. The adjusted HRs [95% CIs] for one-year recurrence for age and indocyanine Smoothened Agonist in vitro green (ICG) 15-min > 30% were 1.1 [1.0-1.26] and 7.87 [1.94-45.1], respectively.\n\nConclusion Non-Child A cirrhosis is an independent risk factor for two-year mortality in patients treated solely with TACE. For ICG 15-min > 30%, careful monitoring for HCC recurrence at one year, even after complete TACE, is warranted.”
“Purpose: This study aimed to establish the safety of outpatient I-131-rituximab radioimmunotherapy by measuring the radiation exposure of hospital staff, carers, and members of the public and by estimating the environmental impact of radioactive urinary excretion.
No scans had to be excluded for inability to obtain an accurate SUVmax measurement because measurements were calculated on portions of the appendix separate from adjacent bowel using small ROIs. Maximum appendiceal SUVs ranged from 0.5 to 9.4 (mean: 2.2) with an appendix-to-liver background ratio ranging from 0.3 to 3.1 (mean: 1.1). FDG uptake in the appendix is typically similar to that of background activity. However,
slight variations in appendiceal FDG uptake do occur, which should not be misinterpreted as pathological.”
“Placenta is an important source and target of hormones that contribute to immunological tolerance and maintenance of pregnancy. In preeclampsia (PE), placental calcitriol synthesis is low; whereas proinflammatory cytokines levels are increased, threatening pregnancy outcome. Previously, BMS-345541 cell line we showed that calcitriol inhibits Th-1 cytokines under experimental
inflammatory conditions in normal trophoblasts. However, a study of the regulation of inflammatory cytokines by calcitriol in trophoblasts from a natural inflammatory condition, such as PE, is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate calcitriol effects upon TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6 and YM155 mw IL-1 beta in cultured placental cells from pre-eclamptic women by using qPCR and ELISA. Placentas were collected after cesarean section from pre-eclamptic women and enriched trophoblastic preparations were cultured in the absence or presence of different calcitriol concentrations during 24 h. In these cell cultures, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion and mRNA expression were downregulated by calcitriol (P < 0.05). No significant effects of calcitriol upon IFN-gamma and IL-1 beta were observed. In addition, basal expression of TNF-alpha, selleck IL-6 and IL-1 beta decreased as the cells formed syncytia. Our study supports an important autocrine/paracrine role of placental
calcitriol in controlling adverse immunological responses at the feto-maternal interface, particularly in gestational pathologies associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses such as preeclampsia. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Acetate oxidation in Italian rice field at 50 degrees C is achieved by uncultured syntrophic acetate oxidizers. As these bacteria are closely related to acetogens, they may potentially also be able to synthesize acetate chemolithoautotrophically. Labeling studies using exogenous H-2 (80%) and (CO2)-C-13 (20%), indeed demonstrated production of acetate as almost exclusive primary product not only at 50 degrees C but also at 15 degrees C. Small amounts of formate, propionate and butyrate were also produced from (CO2)-C-13. At 50 degrees C, acetate was first produced but later on consumed with formation of CH4. Acetate was also produced in the absence of exogenous H-2 albeit to lower concentrations.
The activation of the JAK-1/STAT-1 signaling pathway and the expessions of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 proteins were investigated in AR42J cells induced with cerulein and treated with either PBS, RPM, or AG490. One group of cells was left untreated as a control group. Subsequently the activity of NF-kappa B was evaluated. Rats were given RPM or AG490
just before the induction of SAP, the severity of which was assessed at 24 h. The findings revealed that the up-regulated expressions of JAK-1/STAT-1, STAT-3 protein see more were closely correlated with the transcription of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 in cerulein-stimulated cells. Administration of RPM or AG490 decreased the activity of NF-kappa B and inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. The reflective markers of severity of SAP were also decreased by RPM or AG490 treatment compared to SAP rats. This study indicates that the JAK-1/STAT-1
signaling pathway activity is an early event in pancreatic inflammatory injury. Therefore, early https://www.selleckchem.com/products/hmpl-504-azd6094-volitinib.html treatment with its inhibitors might be beneficial for attenuation of pancreatic injury in SAP.”
“Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt
gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p a parts per thousand currency sign 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin BLZ945 solubility dmso D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins.\n\nKey message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes.”
“Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions.
The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any
host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“To assess Elafibranor whether men newly diagnosed with Gleason 7 prostate cancer are eligible for active surveillance (AS) instead of radical treatment. AS is an appropriate initial strategy in selected men who are presently diagnosed with prostate cancer, as many tumours will not progress during this website a patient’s lifetime.\n\nCancer-specific-, overall and treatment-free survival were analysed retrospectively in men with Gleason score 7 cancer who were initially managed expectantly. All were screen-detected in four centres of the European Randomized Study
of Screening for Prostate Cancer.\n\nIn 50 men active therapy was initially withheld if they had Gleason 7 disease; 29 of 50 (58%) would otherwise have been suitable for AS, as they had a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of <= 10.0 ng/mL, a PSA density of < 0.2 ng/mL/mL, stage T1c/T2, and two or fewer positive biopsy-cores; 44 of 50 (88%) had a Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7. The mean (range) age of the men was 69.5 (59.6-76.2) years and the median (interquartile range) follow-up was 2.6 (0.8-5.0) years; the mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 1.8. The 6-year cancer-specific survival (nine patients at risk) was 100%, which sharply contrasted with the 68% overall Nutlin-3 survival. Men alive at
the time of analysis had a favourable PSA level and PSA-doubling time. The 6-year treatment-free survival was only 59%, with most patients switching to active therapy, justified on the basis of their PSA level. However, men with otherwise favourable tumour characteristics and a Gleason score of 3 + 4 = 7 remained treatment-free significantly longer than their counterparts with unfavourable other tumour features and a Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7.\n\nIn selected patients with screen-detected Gleason 3 + 4 = 7 prostate cancer, AS might be an option, especially in those with comorbidity and/or a short life-expectancy.”
“Background: Production of recombinant proteins in bacteria for academic and commercial purposes is a well established field; however the outcomes of process developments for specific proteins are still often unpredictable. One reason is the limited understanding of the performance of expression cassettes relative to each other due to different genetic contexts.