Yasuda, N ; Iwagami, H ; Nakanishi, E ; Nakamiya, T ; Sasaki, Y ;

Yasuda, N.; Iwagami, H.; Nakanishi, E.; Nakamiya, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Murata, T., Journal of Antibiotics 1983, 36(3), 242–249. Zagorevskii, D.V.; Aldersley, M.F.; Ferris J.P., J. American Society of Mass Spectrometry 2006, 17, 1265–1270. E-mail: [email protected]​edu Creating de novo Entospletinib research buy Random RNAs. Implication

for the RNA-World Anella Fabrizio Maria1,2, De APR-246 order Lucrezia Davide1,2, Faiella Rachel2, Chiarabelli Cristiano1,2, Luisi Pier Luigi1 1Departement of Biology, University of RomaTre, 00146 Rome, Italy; 2European Centre for Living Technology, 30124Venice, Italy The RNA World hypothesis, which assumes that an RNA World preceded our contemporary DNA/RNA/protein World, has become more and more popular in the field of the origin of life (Joyce, 2002; Orgel, 2003). Despite the recent progresses made in this field, some basic questions remain unanswered: Can RNA catalyse the reaction needed for self-replication on the early Earth? Can RNA-based life achieve the metabolic sophistication needed to give birth to the protein-nucleic acid World? To tackle to these questions a number of theoretical and Alpelisib experimental

(Szostak et al., 2001; Muller, 2006) works have been carried out with the ultimate goal of re-creating an RNA World in the laboratory. Within this framework lies the “Never Born Biopolymers (NBBs)” project (Luisi et al., 2006) and in particular the “Never Born RNAs” (NBRs) project which goal is to explore the RNAs’ sequence space for catalytic functions. This project moves from the observation that the extant collection of RNA molecules is only a minor part of the all theoretically possible RNA sequences (Luisi, 2003). On the basis of these observations, the question whether functionality is a common feature or a rare result of natural selection is of the utmost importance to elucidate the role of RNA in the origin of life and to fully exploit its biological potential. In this work we report the investigation of the catalytic properties of a completely de novo library of random RNAs with the

aim to determine whether and to what extent functional RNA spontaneously occur in a random library. A random DNA library of 60 residues was designed and produced to carry out in vitro transcription and the resulting RNAs was screened to evaluate their functional properties by means of in vitro evolution (Joyce, 2004). The population of RNAs was screened for the ability why of recognized a Transition State Analogue (TSA) for the protease reaction (Yamauchi et al., 2002). According to the transition state theory (Eyring, 1935; Tanaka, 2002) enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy by recognizing and binding to the transient transition state structure as it is formed during the reaction. Based on this concept, TSA are designed to closely mimic the transition states and related high-energy intermediates with regards to bond orders, lengths, and angles, as well as expanded valences, charge distribution, and geometry.

J Hepatol 2008, 49:52–60 PubMedCrossRef 14 Nakamoto RH, Uetake H

J Hepatol 2008, 49:52–60.PubMedCrossRef 14. Nakamoto RH, Uetake H, Iida S, Kolev YV, Soumaoro LT, Takagi Y, Yasuno M, Sugihara K: Correlations between BAY 11-7082 cyclooxygenase 2 expression and angiogenic factors in primary tumors and liver metastases in colorectal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2007, 37:679–85.PubMedCrossRef 15. Tai IT, Tang MJ: SPARC in cancer biology: its role in cancer progression and potential for therapy. Drug Resist Updat 2008, 11:231–46.PubMedCrossRef 16. Haber CL, Gottifredi V, Llera AS, Salvatierra E, Prada F, Alonso L, Sage EH, Podhajcer OL: SPARC modulates the proliferation of stromal but not melanoma

cells unless endogenous SPARC expression is downregulated. Int J Cancer 2008, 122:1465–75.PubMedCrossRef www.selleckchem.com/products/otx015.html 17. Barth PJ, Moll R, Ramaswamy A: Stromal remodeling and SPARC (secreted protein acid rich in cysteine) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Virchows Arch 2005, 446:532–6.PubMedCrossRef 18. Beck AH, Espinosa I, Gilks CB, van de Rijn M, West RB: The fibromatosis signature defines a

robust stromal response in breast carcinoma. Lab Invest 2008, 88:591–601.PubMedCrossRef 19. Bergamaschi A, Tagliabue E, Sørlie T, Naume B, Triulzi T, Orlandi R, Russnes HG, Nesland JM, Tammi R, Auvinen P, Kosma VM, Ménard S, Børresen-Dale AL: Extracellular matrix signature identifies breast cancer subgroups with different clinical outcome. J Pathol 2008, 214:357–67.PubMedCrossRef 20. Teschendorff AE, Miremadi A, Pinder SE, Ellis IO, Caldas C: Animmune response gene expression module identifies a good prognosis subtype in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. Genome Biol 2007, 8:R157.PubMedCrossRef 21. Wong SY, Haack H, Kissil JL, Barry M, Bronson RT, Shen SS, Whittaker CA, Crowley D, Hynes RO: Protein 4.1B suppresses prostate cancer progression and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007, 104:12784–9.PubMedCrossRef 22. Yamanaka M, Kanda K, Li NC, Fukumori T, Oka N, Kanayama HO, Kagawa S: Analysis of the gene expression of SPARC and its prognostic value for

bladder cance. J Urol 2001, 166:2495–9.PubMedCrossRef 23. Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Brekken RA, Sivridis E, Gatter Farnesyltransferase KC, Harris AL, Sage EH: Enhanced Expression of SPARC/Osteonectin in the Tumor associated Selleck Vorinostat Stroma of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Is Correlated with Markers of Hypoxia/Acidity and with Poor Prognosis of Patients. Cancer Res 2003, 63:5376–80.PubMed 24. Yiu GK, Chan WY, Ng SW, Chan PS, Cheung KK, Berkowitz RS, Mok SC: SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Am J Pathol 2001, 159:609–22.PubMedCrossRef 25. Watkins G, Douglas-Jones A, Bryce R, Mansel RE, Jiang WG: Increased levels of SPARC (osteonectin) in human breast cancer tissues and its association with clinical outcomes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005, 72:267–72.PubMedCrossRef 26.

The series decomposition of G(s) does not contain u 2-term; it co

The series decomposition of G(s) does not contain u 2-term; it contains only small c 2 u 2-term, G(u) = G(0)[1 - O(c 2 u 2)], although G(u) essentially Selleckchem Wortmannin decreases at large u, when the vortex core is close to be expelled from the dot [16]. The result of power decomposition of the total energy density is (4) and the coefficients are where , , , β = L/R, , and ς = 1 + 15(ln 2 - 1/2)R c /8R. There is an additional contribution to κ/2, 2(L e /R)2, due to the face magnetic charges essential for the nanodots with small R [27]. The contribution is

positive and LY333531 can be accounted by calculating dependence of the equilibrium vortex core radius (c) on the vortex displacement. This dependence with high accuracy at cu < < 1 can be described by the function c(u) = c(0)(1 - u 2)/(1 + u 2). Here, c(0) is the equilibrium vortex core radius at s = 0, for instance

c(0) = 0.12 (R c  = 12 nm) for the nanodot thickness L = 7 nm. The nonlinear vortex gyrotropic frequency can be written accounting Equation 4 as (5) where the linear gyrotropic frequency is ω 0 = γM s κ(β, R, J)/2, and N(β, R) = κ′(β, R)/κ(β, R). The frequency was calculated in [26] PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 molecular weight and was experimentally and numerically confirmed in many papers. The nonlinear coefficient N(β,R) depends strongly on the parameters β and R, decreasing with β and R increasing. The typical values of N(β,R) at J = 0 are equal to 0.3 to 1. The last term in Equation 3 prevents its reducing to a nonlinear

oscillator equation Methane monooxygenase similar to the one used for the description of saturated STNO in [13]. Calculation within TVA yields the decomposition , where , i.e., the term containing d n (s) ≈ α G u 2 <<1 can be neglected. Then, substituting s = u exp(iΦ) to Equation 3, we get the system of coupled equations (6) Equation 3 and the system (6) are different from the system of equations of the nonlinear oscillator approach [13]. Equations 6 are reduced to the autonomous oscillator equations and only if the conditions d 2 < < 1 and dχ < < ω G are satisfied and we define the positive/negative damping parameters [13] as Γ +(u) = d(u)ω G (u) and Γ -(u) = χ(u). We note that reducing the Thiele equation (1) to a nonlinear oscillator equation [13] is possible only for axially symmetric nanodot, when the functions W(s), G(s), d(s) and χ(s) depend only on u = |s| and the additional conditions d n  < < 1, d 2 < < 1, and dχ < < ω G are satisfied. The nonlinear oscillator model [13] cannot be applied for other nanodot (free layer) shapes, i.e., elliptical, square, etc., whereas the generalized Thiele equation (1) has no such restrictions. The system (6) at yields the steady vortex oscillation solution u 0(J) > 0 as root of the equation χ(u 0) = d(u 0)ω G (u 0) for χ(0) > d(0)ω 0 (J > J c1) and u 0 = 0 otherwise.

Of key interest is the effect of sports drinks on exercise perfor

Of key interest is the effect of sports drinks on exercise performance. The inclusion of CHO beverages has been shown to improve exercise performance and time to fatigue during relatively short laboratory [18–20] and field based assessments [21]. More recently, studies have demonstrated

an effect of multiple transportable carbohydrates on sustained time trial performance Selleck EPZ5676 [22, 23] and power output [22, 24]. However, this is not supported elsewhere [25], especially when commercially available carbohydrate beverages have been used [26]. With recent public interest in the accuracy of marketing claims, and whether commercially available sports drinks are indeed beneficial for performance [27, 28], Selleckchem PRIMA-1MET we were invited to undertake an independent assessment of a commercial maltodextrin/ fructose beverage (MD + F: Energy Source™, High 5 Ltd.) on total and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, and fluid delivery in comparison to a maltodextrin only beverage (MD) and placebo (P). A further aim was to assess the influence of the three beverages on cycling performance following a period of sustained steady state exercise. It was hypothesised that the MD + F commercial formula would lead to greater exogenous oxidation and fluid delivery rates, resulting in a specific performance gains. Materials and methods Participants Fourteen club level male cyclists

were recruited for participation following power calculation assessment (G*Power3, Dusseldorf [29]). All participants had an endurance training MDV3100 cost background of at least two years, and did not suffer from diabetes or have known dysglycemia. Before undertaking the study, participants were required to provide written informed consent and satisfactorily complete a health screen questionnaire. Additionally, participants were Rucaparib concentration excluded if consuming other nutritional supplements. Ethical approval for the study was provided by the University of Hertfordshire Life and Medical Sciences Ethics Committee. Procedures Preliminary testing At least one week prior to experimental trials, participants completed an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion for assessment of maximal power output (Wmax) and maximal

oxygen consumption (VO2max). All testing was undertaken in the Human Physiology Laboratory, Division of Sport, Health and Exercise, University of Hertfordshire. Upon reporting to the laboratory, the participants’ nude body mass (Seca, model 780, Hamburg, Germany) and height were recorded. Following this, maximal tests were performed on a Computrainer (RaceMate Inc, Seattle, USA) and related Coaching Software program (Comp CS, RaceMate Inc, Seattle, USA). The Computrainer was pre-calibrated and standardised to the body mass and cycle of the participant. Following a 10 minute standardised warm-up at 100 W, an incremental step protocol was then undertaken, with power output progressing by 30 W each 3 minutes until volitional exhaustion.

Western analyses of eIF2α phosphorylation in the strains expressi

Western analyses of eIF2α phosphorylation in the strains expressing zebrafish PKR and the various vIF2α mutants revealed that vIF2α, vIF2α+26C,

vIF2α59C led to strong and comparable inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation (Figure 5D, next to bottom panel, JNK-IN-8 lanes 2-4). Consistent with their inability to inhibit PKR G418 in vitro toxicity in yeast, high levels of eIF2α phosphorylation were observed in strains expressing the other vIF2α mutants (Figure 5D). As seen earlier, PKR was expressed at higher levels and migrated faster on SDS-PAGE when PKR toxicity and eIF2α phosphorylation were suppressed (Figure 5D, top panel). Western blot analyses using antibodies against a C-terminal Myc-epitope tag in the vIF2α constructs revealed detectable expression for only vIF2α, vIF2α+26C, and vIF2α59C. Comparable results were obtained in Western blot analyses of protein extracts from the control (-PKR) strain Omipalisib in vivo expressing these same vIF2α mutants (data not shown), indicating that both the S1 domain and the helical domain are essential for vIF2α expression and/or stability. Figure 5 Both S1 and helical domains in vIF2α are required for PKR inhibition. (A) Schematic representation of RCV-Z vIF2α constructs tested in yeast growth assays and Western blots analyses. S1 domain (red), helical domain (HD;

blue) and C-terminal domain (CTD, yellow) are represented by boxes. Numbers that follow deltas (Δ) indicate the(number of residues that were deleted from the C- or N-terminus, respectively. The extended C-terminus (26 amino acids) from ATV vIF2α was added to the C-terminus of RCV-Z vIF2α in the constructs with the +26C label. The indicated constructs were introduced into isogenic yeast strains having either an empty vector (B, J673) or a GAL-CYC1-zebrafish PKR construct (C, J944) integrated at the LEU2 locus. The indicated transformants were streaked on SC-Gal medium where expression of both PKR and the viral

proteins was induced, and incubated at 30°C for 4 days. Results shown are representative of 4 independent transformants for each plasmid. (D) Transformants Etofibrate described in panels B-C were grown in liquid SC-Gal medium for 13 hours, then whole cell extracts were obtained from equal numbers of cells and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblot analysis. Following transfer to nitrocellulose membranes, the upper half of the blot was probed with anti-Flag tag antibodies, which detect Flag-tagged zebrafish PKR (top panel). The lower part of the blot was incubated with anti-Myc tag antibodies to detect Myc-tagged vIF2α (second panel from top), then stripped and probed with phosphospecific antibodies against Ser51 in eIF2α (eIF2α-P; third panel from top), and finally stripped again and probed with polyclonal antiserum against total yeast eIF2α (bottom panel).

PubMedCrossRef 8 Tan D, Xue YS, Aibaidula G, Chen GQ: Unsterile

PubMedCrossRef 8. Tan D, Xue YS, Aibaidula G, Chen GQ: Unsterile and continuous

AZD1390 datasheet production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Halomonas TD01. Biorescour Technol 2011, 102:8130–8136.CrossRef 9. Schwibbert K, Marin-Sanguino A, Bagyan I, Heidrich G, Lentzen G, Seitz H, Rampp M, Schuster SC, Klenk HP, Pfeiffer F, Oesterhelt D, Kunte HJ: A blueprint of ectoine metabolism from the genome of the industrial producer Halomonas elongata DSM 2581 T. Environ Microbiol 2011, 13:1973–1994.PubMedCrossRef 10. Vargas C, Tegos G, Vartholomatos G, Drainas C, Ventosa A, Nieto JJ: Genetic organization of the mobilization region of the plasmid pHE1 from Halomonas elongata . Syst Appl Microbiol 1999, 22:520–529.PubMedCrossRef 11. Vargas C, Tegos G, Drainas C, Ventosa A, Nieto JJ: Analysis

of the replication region of the cryptic plasmid pHE1 from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata . Mol Gen Genet 1999, 261:851–861.PubMedCrossRef 12. Mobberley JM, Authement RN, Segall AM, Paul JH: The temperate marine phage PhiHAP-1 of Halomonas aquamarina possesses a linear plasmid-like prophage Selleck LXH254 genome. J Virol 2008, 82:6618–6630.PubMedCrossRef 13. D’Hugues P, Norris PR, Hallberg KB, Sánchez F, Langwaldt J, Grotowski A, Chmielewski T, Groudev S: Bioshale consortium: bioshale FP6 European project: exploiting black shale ores using biotechnologies? Miner Eng 2008, 21:111–120.CrossRef 14. Gibson TJ: Studies on Epstein-Barr genome. PhD thesis. next University of Cambridge; 1984. 15. Ludtke DN, Eichorn BG, Austin SJ: Plasmid-partition functions of the P7 prophage. J Mol Biol 1989, 209:393–406.PubMedCrossRef 16. Hooykaas PJJ, den Dulk-Ras H, Schilperoort RA: Molecular mechanism of Ti plasmid mobilization by R plasmids: isolation of Ti plasmids with transposon insertions in Agrobacterium tumefaciens . Plasmid 1980, 4:64–75.PubMedCrossRef 17. Bartosik D, Baj J, Plasota M, Piechucka E, Wlodarczyk M: Analysis of Thiobacillus versutus pTAV1 plasmid functions. Acta Microbiol Pol 1993, 39:5–11. 18. Bartosik D, Bialkowska A, Baj J, Wlodarczyk M: Construction of mobilizable cloning vectors selleck compound derived

from pBGS18 and their application for analysis of replicator region of a pTAV202 mini-derivative of Paracoccus versutus pTAV1 plasmid. Acta Microbiol Pol 1997, 46:387–392.PubMed 19. Kovach ME, Phillips RW, Elzer PH, Roop RM II, Petersen K: pBBR1MCS: a broad-host-range cloning vector. Biotechniques 1994, 16:800–802.PubMed 20. Szuplewska M, Bartosik D: Identification of a mosaic transposable element of Paracoccus marcusii composed of insertion sequence IS Pmar4 (IS As1 family) and an IS 1247a -driven transposable module (TMo). FEMS Microbiol Lett 2009, 292:216–221.PubMedCrossRef 21. Sambrook J, Russell DW: Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual. 3rd edition. New York, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2001. 22.

Following this, 200-ps constant mole, pressure, and temperature (

Following this, 200-ps constant mole, pressure, and temperature (NPT) runs were conducted at the same temperature and zero pressure in three directions using the Nosé-Hoover thermostat and barostat [30, 31]. The bulk systems were subsequently cooled down to 50 K at a rate of 4.75 K/ps with zero external pressure under NPT ensemble. After a short NPT run for 50 ps at 50 K, the systems are heated to 600 K with a rate of 1.1 K/ps, and the density of the bulk systems were monitored during the heating process. The systems were subsequently cooled down from 600 to

200 K at a rate of 2 K/ps. Finally, two steps of relaxation were performed under buy Lorlatinib NPT and NVT ensembles with 100 ps each to obtain samples for mechanical load simulations. These MD models are henceforth referred to as the bulk MD models. Figure 1 Unit molecular network structure and schematic depiction of PE particles. (a) Unit molecular network structure of polyethylene (PE). A networked

Vismodegib ic50 molecule C2200 is decomposed into branched and linear molecules via bond breaking at cross-linking click here points. The number of united atoms in each linear segment is indicated. The beads at the ends of as-generated branched and linear molecules are hence re-defined (from CH to CH3 bead). (b) Schematic depiction of the preparation of ultrafine nanoscale PE particles. PE molecules are packed into a spherical ADAMTS5 shape via shrinking under hydrostatic pressure. The as-generated nanoparticle is able to maintain the spherical shape under full relaxation. Each simulated bulk or particle system consists of 66,000 beads in total. Coloring of beads is based on the molecule number. MD models of PE nanoparticles were constructed as shown in Figure 1b. The periodic boundary conditions of the bulk MD models were removed in all directions, and a spherical wall was introduced to encircle all the beads. The beads falling outside the circle will be dragged into the circle. The spherical wall was able to exert a force onto each atom with the magnitude defined by: (2) where K is a specified force constant which is given

to 5.0 kcal/(moleÅ2), r is the distance from the bead to the center of the sphere, and R is the radius of the sphere. The negative magnitude of the force in Equation 2 indicates that the force acts towards the center of the sphere. Therefore, higher pulling forces are applied to beads far away from the edge of the sphere. The radius of the sphere was reduced to densify the polymer as described by: (3) where R and R 0 are the instantaneous and initial radius of the spherical wall, respectively, S is a positive constant, and n has progressive values of positive integers corresponding to elapsed time of the simulation (i.e., n = 1, 2, 3, …). For the simulations described herein, S was 0.99 and n increased by a value of 1 for every 5 ps of simulation time.

The remaining 34 isolates were defined as new by the MLST Public

The remaining 34 isolates were defined as new by the MLST Public Database (pubmlst.org/paeruginosa) (see Additional file 4). However, these 34 new MLST-profiles included 4 profiles deriving from a combination of known alleles not described in the public CP-690550 database, 10 profiles due to the presence of at least one novel allele, and the remaining 20 profiles with medium-quality sequence within one or multiple alleles, for which the allele type could not be univocally determined. Excluding the two isolates with > 2 alleles with medium-quality

sequences, overall 48 MLST STs could be identified among the remaining 78 isolates, the majority of which were single-isolate ST groups (81.3%). The AT-approach identified within the same set TH-302 of isolates a smaller number of AT-genotypes, precisely 24, more than half of which (54.2%) with multiple isolates (see Additional file 1). This data suggested a higher discriminatory power of MLST in comparison to AT-typing, which could be explained by the much higher information content of sequence data on the 7 MLST-marker genes versus presence/absence of polymorphisms in single nucleotides within the 13 ArrayTube SNPs-markers. The Simpson’s index of diversity (DI), calculated on all 78 isolates, was indeed

higher for MSLT than AT microarray typing (DI = 0.966 for MLST (0.946–0.987 95% CI); DI = 0.924 for AT (0.894–0.954 95% CI)), indicating a higher discriminatory ability of MLSTversus AT. However, the difference in discrimination ability was lower than for PFGE versus AT. Also, the global congruence between MLST and AT (adjusted Rand coefficient = 0.559 (95% CI)) was higher than for PFGE versus AT. Focusing on the 3 AT-groups with the most MLST-typed isolates, i.e. F469, 4B9A and EC2A, we observed

that within each of these groups, more than 62% of the isolates (68.8% for the F469 group, 62.5% for 4B9A and 75.0% for EC2A) had an identical MLST-profile, whereas the other isolates differed for 1 to 3 MLST-alleles from the SHP099 nmr dominant clone of the group. By computing the genetic distances between the MLST DNA sequences of the three AT-types, we observed that highest genetic distance was equivalent Metformin to 0.286 (isolate VRPS110) within the F469-group, 0.429 (isolate VRPS97) in the 4B9A-group and 0.143 (isolate FC17) within the EC2A-group (see Figure 1). Figure 1 Genetic distances between MLST DNA sequences within AT-groups. The genetic distance between MLST DNA sequences is shown for AT-groups F469, 4B9A and EC2A. Each graph represents on the horizontal axis the genetic distance to the dominant MLST-ST within the AT-group and, on the vertical axis, the absolute frequency of each ST. Looking at the three larger AT-groups, the exclusion of all isolates with medium-quality allele sequences increased the number of isolates with identical MLST ST within each group. In detail, all 11 isolates from the F469 group had an identical MLST-profile, i.e.

3 Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy

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PubMedCrossRef 36 Alverdy JC, Chang EB: The re-emerging role of

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antibodies in patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 2002,346(7):469–475.PubMedCrossRef 44. Patruta SI, Horl WH: Iron and infection. Kidney Int Suppl 1999, 69:S125–130.PubMedCrossRef 45. Sunder-Plassmann G, Patruta SI, Horl WH: Pathobiology of the role of iron in infection. Am J Kidney Dis 1999,34(4 Suppl 2):S25–29.PubMedCrossRef 46. Alexander J, Limaye AP, Ko CW, Bronner MP, Kowdley KV: Association of hepatic iron overload with invasive fungal see more infection in liver

transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2006,12(12):1799–1804.PubMedCrossRef 47. Khan FA, Cyclooxygenase (COX) Fisher MA, Khakoo RA: Association of hemochromatosis with infectious diseases: expanding spectrum. Int J Infect Dis 2007,11(6):482–487.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions KR carried out measurements of intestinal mucosal pH, ran mice experiments, and measured iron concentration; AZ carried out C. elegans experiments, RNA isolation and preparation for microarray analysis, and performed pyoverdin assays; HF conceived of the study, measured intestinal mucus pH, and pyoverdin production; VP performed RT-PCR analysis; VV ran mice experiments; SG participated in the reconstruction of the microarray data to reveal main affected subsystems; DL conceived of the study, and participated in its design; OZ conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, performed microarray analysis, and wrote the manuscript; JA coordinated the study, participated in the design, and wrote the manuscript.