Analysis of blood cells from injected mice showed that GA associated with a mononuclear CD11bhi cell population (Fig. 1A, left panels). This association was specific for GA, because Alexa488-OVA
did not EPZ-6438 purchase bind to these cells. Alexa488 staining on CD11bhi cells was also observed when GA-Alexa488 was injected into MHC class II–deficient mice (Fig. 1A, right panels), showing that MHC class II was not necessary for targeting of GA to these cells in vivo. Further characterization of the cell surface markers on GA+ cells from both wild-type and MHC class II–deficient mice identified them as F4/80lo/Ly6G−, consistent with a monocyte phenotype (Fig. 1B and data not shown). GA-Alexa488+ monocytes were observed within 20 min of GA administration, and >95% monocytes were GA+ after 3–6 h (Fig. 1C). Taken together, our findings showed that GA rapidly and specifically targets blood monocytes after intravenous administration. Previous work in our group has shown that naïve blood CD11bhi F4/80lo Ly6G− cells exhibit the capacity to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro . In this study,
co-culture with blood monocytes from naïve mice also suppressed T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28-coated learn more beads, and this effect was enhanced in monocytes isolated from mice that had been treated with GA (Fig. 2A). GA-treated monocytes also exhibited enhanced suppression of antigen-specific proliferation of CD4 T cells very (Fig. 2B). To determine whether intravenous GA treatment could suppress T cell proliferation in vivo, CFSE-labelled, MOG-specific TCR transgenic CD4 T cells were adoptively transferred into
CD45.1+ congenic mice. T cells were transferred in the presence of either MOG35–55 alone or MOG35–55 and GA, and 2–4 days later, in vivo T cell proliferation was measured by flow cytometry. As shown in Fig. 2C, in vivo T cell proliferation was reduced in GA-treated mice in comparison with mice injected with MOG35–55 alone. Taken together, these findings showed that intravenous GA treatment greatly delayed T cell proliferation in vivo, which is likely due to the enhanced capability of blood monocytes to suppress antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Subcutaneous administration of GA is commonly used for MS treatment and has been shown to suppress EAE . To address the question of whether suppression of pathogenic T cell proliferation by monocytes was also contributing to the efficacy of subcutaneous GA treatment, we adopted a co-immunization model of EAE treatment modified from Gilgun-Sherki et al. . Mice were injected subcutaneously with a CFA emulsion containing combinations of the disease-causing MOG35–55 peptide and GA. To investigate antigen-specific T cell expansion, CFSE-labelled MOG-specific TCR transgenic cells were adoptively transferred into congenic mice, and the recipients immunized with CFA+MOG35–55 peptide with or without GA. As shown in Fig.