Interestingly, more severe SAD symptomatology inversely predicted

Interestingly, more severe SAD symptomatology inversely predicted a degree of forgetting. We conclude that the main difference between socially anxious and non-anxious participants is specifically related to the ability to intentionally forget and could reflect cognitive functioning

that is associated with vulnerability to anxiety. Impairment of the ability to make unwanted memories less retrievable could prompt some individuals to initiate or maintain anxiety disorders. Future psychological treatments could benefit from including modules selleckchem on memory control training. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This retrospective study evaluated the recovery of ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) weakness following decompressive surgery in order to identify factors indicative of a better outcome.\n\nFifty-six consecutive patients with ADF weakness secondary to nerve root compression underwent lumbar decompressive surgery. The demographic features, duration and severity of preoperative ADF weakness, associated radicular pain, as well as the radiological LB-100 and intraoperative findings were recorded. ADF weakness at

the time of initial follow-up at 6 weeks following surgery, and the latest follow-up at a median of 24 months was recorded. The patients had a mean age of 50.5 years with equal numbers of men and women. Acute disc prolapse was the compressive pathology in 88%. Clinical foot drop, defined as an ADF power of <3 by manual testing according to the Medical Research Council classification, was present in 66% of patients on presentation. Grade 3 power was present in 27% of patients and 7% had grade 4 power on presentation. The mean ADF power on presentation was 1.8. This improved to a mean of 3.2 at 6 weeks following Surgery (p < 0.0001). A further small improvement in ADF power occurred after 6 weeks

following Surgery to a power of 3.5 at the latest follow-up (p < 0.0001). The degree of ADF PARP inhibitor weakness at latest follow-up correlates with the deficit at presentation (p < 0.001). Younger patients made a better recovery (p = 0.03). No other significant associations between the demographic OF Clinical features and the recovery of the weakness could be identified. Thus, decompressive surgery was associated with an early improvement in ADF weakness. Only small improvements take place beyond 6 weeks following surgery. The degree of deficit at presentation is predictive of the extent of recovery. Recovery in ADF strength is more evident ill younger patients. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Schools are an important site for delivery of asthma education programs. Computer-based educational programs are a critical component of asthma education programs and may be a particularly important education method in busy school environments. Objective.

Case 2 – A , 5 years old, was referred for history

\n\nCase 2. – A., 5 years old, was referred for history AZD6244 solubility dmso of syncope for the 2 last years. The echocardiography showed a severe pulmonary hypertension and an isolate noncompaction of the right ventricle.\n\nConclusion. – Due to the rarity of the isolate non-compaction of the right ventricle, it diagnosis remains difficult. The treatment and the outcomes of this disease are still unclear. An early diagnosis may help to reduce its complication. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The chloromethylation of activated carbon is described. Chloromethylation was found to produce a carbon derivative

with a surface area of 1310 m(2)/g and no significant change in the pore structure. The product was found to contain similar to 1.5 mmole of -CH(2)Cl groups per g of material, similar to the functional density reported in the original Merrifield resin synthesis. Displacement of the benzylic chloride was achieved by treating this material with an excess of sodium thiosulfate in refluxing aqueous methanol. The resulting Bunte salt was then hydrolyzed by treatment with warm 3M HCl to afford the corresponding thiol (“AC-CH(2)-SH”) cleanly and in high yield. AC-CH(2)-SH was found to be an effective heavy metal sorbent, efficiently capturing Hg, Pb, Ag, and Cu. Sorption kinetics were rapid, with equilibrium achieved in less than 30 minutes.”
“Shoot multiplication of Chrysanthemum was achieved from shoot tip explant, using MS (Murashige LDN-193189 &

Skoog) media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators.

Different parameters including shoot initiation percentage, average number of shoots per explant, length of shoots (cm), number of leaves per shoot and number of nodes per shoot were studied. Lowest concentration (0.5 mg/L) of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) excelled all the other concentrations in almost all the parameter studied when used alone. Maximum shoot initiation (80.00%), shoot per explants (3.2), length of shoots (3.4 cm), number of leaves (9.5) and nodes Selleckchem Nutlin3a (4.5) were recorded in MS media showed supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA. Intermediate concentration (1.0 mg/L) of benzyle adenine purine (BAP) its superiority over all the other BAP concentrations used, when used alone. MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/L BAP had produced maximum shoot initiation (93.3%), shoot per explant (4.1), length of shoots (5.0 cm) number of leaves (11.0) and nodes (5.5).\n\nSimilarly, when the combination of different concentrations of NAA and BAP were used, significant results regarding intermediate concentration of regeneration of chrysanthemum plantlets were achieved. MS media supplemented with lower concentrations of NAA (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) and BAP (1.0 and 1.5 mg/L) showed better results as compared to other concentrations and combinations. Satisfactory rooting response including days to root emergence (5.0), root initiation percentage (100%), roots per plantlet (14.3) and root length (9.

However, the use of cortical signals to

However, the use of cortical signals to Kinase Inhibitor Library mw control a multi-jointed prosthetic device for direct real-time interaction with the physical environment (‘embodiment’) has not been demonstrated. Here we describe a system that permits embodied prosthetic control; we show how monkeys (Macaca mulatta) use their motor cortical activity to control a mechanized arm replica in a self-feeding task. In addition to the three dimensions of movement, the subjects’ cortical signals also proportionally controlled a gripper on the end of the arm. Owing to the physical interaction between the monkey, the robotic arm and objects in the workspace, this new task presented a higher level of difficulty than previous

virtual (cursor-control) experiments. Apart from an example of simple one-dimensional control(23), previous experiments have lacked physical interaction even in cases where a robotic arm(16,19,24) or hand(20)

was included in the control loop, because the subjects did not use it to interact with physical objects – an interaction that cannot be fully simulated. Y 27632 This demonstration of multi-degree-of-freedom embodied prosthetic control paves the way towards the development of dexterous prosthetic devices that could ultimately achieve arm and hand function at a near-natural level.”
“The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on both genetic factors and lifestyle-related factors. Chemoprevention’s true contribution is dependent on lifetime CRC risk. There are clinical situations where chemoprevention for CRC is undoubtedly useful. There are other situations where the risk of CRC seems to be only moderately increased and in these situations, the true contribution of chemoprevention is questionable. A few specific studies assessing the effect of chemopreventive agents in these situations are available. In the present article, we will try to better define these particular situations and discuss the risk quantification and the expected selleck kinase inhibitor chemoprevention contribution. (C) Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved”
“Aims: Respondent-driven sampling

is a research technique, new to the Scandinavian setting, used in hard-to-reach populations, such as subjects at risk for HIV, including drug users. This study aimed to evaluate the use of respondent-driven sampling originating from syringe exchange clients, as a method to identify ‘hidden’ drug users without treatment or social service contact. Methods: Nine heroin and amphetamine injectors were recruited as ‘seeds’ and instructed to recruit up to three heavy drug users in a chain-referral process. Recruited clients were interviewed about drug use, social conditions and contacts with treatment, syringe exchange and other authorities. In order to estimate whether the recruitment managed to evolve into groups of ‘hidden’ drug users, clients included beyond the fourth wave of chain-referral were compared with seeds (wave 0) and clients recruited in waves 1-3.

01) Thrombin generation as indicated by prothrombin fragment F 1

01). Thrombin generation as indicated by prothrombin fragment F 1+2 levels was reduced during PCI

in the UFH group (P<0.01) but not with bivalirudin. Soluble CD40 ligand is associated with thrombosis and levels were higher in the bivalirudin group irrespective of GPIlb/Illa at the same stages (P<0.05).\n\nConclusions: Bivalirudin has some early advantages on platelet activation when compared to check details UFH. However, there are significant limitations in its mechanism of action, particularly a lack of release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor.”
“The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) asymmetry measures with developmental outcomes in term infants. Doppler CBFV parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and mean velocity [MV]) of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 52 healthy term infants were prospectively selleck kinase inhibitor examined on postnatal days 1-5, and then their motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The left CBFV asymmetry measure (PSV or MV) was calculated by subtracting the right-side value from the left-side value. Left CBFV asymmetry measures were significantly positively related to motor scores at 6 (r = 0.3-0.32, p < 0.05) and 12 (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) months of age, but were not related to cognitive or language outcome.

Thus, the leftward hemodynamic status of the middle cerebral arteries, as measured by cranial Doppler ultrasound in the neonatal period, predicts early motor outcome in term Sapanisertib research buy infants. (E-mail: [email protected]) (C) 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.”
“Berg RM, Plovsing RR, Damgaard M. Teaching baroreflex physiology to medical students: a comparison of quiz-based and conventional teaching strategies in a laboratory exercise. Adv Physiol Educ 36: 147-153, 2012; doi:10.1152/advan.00011.2012.-Quizbased

and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes individually and in groups with conventional teaching on the immediate learning during a laboratory exercise. We implemented two quizzes in a mandatory 4-h laboratory exercise on baroreflex physiology. A total of 155 second-year medical students were randomized to solve quizzes individually (intervention group I, n = 57), in groups of three to four students (intervention group II, n = 56), or not to perform any quizzes (control; intervention group III, n = 42). After the laboratory exercise, all students completed an individual test, which encompassed two recall questions, two intermediate questions, and two integrated questions.


binding at S1 or S2 also increased translation eq


binding at S1 or S2 also increased translation equally, but the effect was abolished by Xrn1 knockdown, suggesting that the influence of miR-122 on HCV translation reflects protection from Xrn1 degradation. Our results show that occupation of each miR-122 binding site contributes equally and cooperatively to HCV replication GW4869 in vitro but suggest somewhat unequal contributions of each site to Xrn1 protection and additional functions of miR-122.”
“Background:\n\nRecent work suggests that 2 biologically based traits convey risk for alcohol misuse: reward sensitivity/drive and (rash) impulsiveness. However, the cognitive mechanisms through which these traits convey risk are unclear.

This study tested a model predicting that the risk conveyed by reward sensitivity is mediated by a learning bias for the reinforcing outcomes of alcohol consumption (i.e., positive alcohol expectancy). The model also proposed that the risk conveyed by rash impulsiveness (RI) is mediated by drinkers’ perceived ability to resist alcohol (i.e., drinking Caspase pathway refusal self-efficacy).\n\nMethods:\n\nStudy 1 tested the model in a sample of young adults (n = 342). Study 2 tested the model in a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers (n = 121). All participants completed a battery of personality, cognitive, and alcohol use questionnaires and models were tested using structural equation modeling.\n\nResults:\n\nIn both studies, the hypothesized model was found to provide a good fit to the data, and a better fit than alternative models. In both young adults and treatment-seeking BX-795 individuals, positive alcohol expectancy fully mediated the association between reward sensitivity and hazardous alcohol use. For treatment seekers, drinking refusal self-efficacy fully mediated the association between RI and hazardous drinking. However, there was partial mediation in the young adult sample. Furthermore, neither trait was directly

associated with the other cognitive mediator.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe hypothesized model was confirmed on a large sample of young adults and replicated on a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers. Taken together, these findings shed further light on the mechanisms through which an impulsive temperament may convey risk for alcohol misuse.”
“Loss of chromosome arm 8p, sometimes in combination with amplification of proximal 8p, is found in urothelial carcinoma (UC) and other epithelial cancers and is associated with more advanced tumor stage. We carried out array comparative genomic hybridization on 174 UC and 33 UC cell lines to examine breakpoints and copy number.

Furthermore, AMPK activation attenuates induction of endogenous S

Furthermore, AMPK activation attenuates induction of endogenous SREBP-1c mRNA by T0901317. These results indicate that AMPK directly inhibits ligand-induced LXR activity in addition to blocking production of endogenous LXR ligands.”
“Aims: Lumican, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP), has attracted attention as a molecule of the extracellular matrix possibly

involved in signalling pathways affecting cancer cell behaviour. The remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, induced in response to external stimuli, is crucial for cell motility and intracellular signal transduction. The main goal 17-AAG ic50 of this study was to examine the effects of recombinant lumican on actin organization, the state of actin polymerization, actin isoform expression, and their sub-cellular distribution in the A375 human melanoma cell line.\n\nMain methods: Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to observe actin cytoskeletal Organization and the sub-cellular distribution of cytoplasmic beta- and gamma-actins. The ability of actin to inhibit DNasel activity was used to quantify actin. Western

blotting and real-time PCR were used to determine the expression levels of the actin isoforms.\n\nKey findings: A375 cells grown on lumican coatings changed in morphology and presented rearranged actin filament organization: from filaments evenly spread throughout the whole cell body to their Compound C price condensed submembrane localization.

In the presence of lumican, both actin isoforms were concentrated under the cellular membrane. A statistically significant increase in the total, filamentous, and monomeric actin pools was observed in A375 cells grown on lumican.\n\nSignificance: Novel biological effects of lumican, an extracellular matrix SLRP, on the actin pool and organization are identified, which may extend Our understanding of the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of lumican on the migration of melanoma cells. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Several studies have investigated whether the polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. However, those studies have produced inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the APOA5 -1131T/C polymorphism (rs662799) confers significant susceptibility to T2DM using a meta-analysis.\n\nMethods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane database, CBMdisc, CNKI and Google Scholar were searched to get the genetic association studies. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 11.0.

Compared with standard therapy, the

Compared with standard therapy, the KU-55933 in vitro augmented treatment regimen (regimen C) included an additional eight doses of pegylated asparaginase,

18 doses of vincristine, and escalated-dose intravenous methotrexate without folinic acid rescue during interim maintenance courses. Computer randomisation was used for treatment allocation and was balanced for sex, age ( smaller than 10 years vs bigger than = 10 years), and white blood cell count at diagnosis ( smaller than 50 x 10(9)/L vs bigger than = 50 x 10(9)/L) by minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcomes were event-free survival and overall survival. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN07355119. Findings 533 MRD high-risk click here patients were randomly assigned to receive standard (n=266) or augmented (n=267) post-remission therapy. After a median follow-up of 70 months (IQR 52-91), 5-year event-free survival was better in the augmented treatment group (89.6% [95% CI 85.9-93.3]) than in the standard group (82.8% [78.1-87.5]; odds ratio [OR] 0.61 [95% CI 0.39-0.98], p=0.04). Overall survival at 5 years was numerically, but not significantly, higher in the augmented treatment group (92.9%

[95% CI 89.8-96.0]) than in the standard therapy group (88.9% [85.0-92.8]; OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.38-1.17], p=0.16). More adverse events A-1210477 nmr occurred in the augmented treatment group than in the standard group (asparaginase-related hypersensitivity in 18 [6.7%] in the augmented group vs two [0.8%] in the standard group and asparaginase-related pancreatitis in eight [3.0%] vs one [0.4%]; intravenous methotrexate-related mucositis in 11 [4.1%] vs three [1.1%] and methotrexate-related

stomatitis in 48 [18.0%] vs 12 [4.5%]). Interpretation Our findings suggest that children and young people with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 0.01% or more MRD at the end of remission induction therapy could benefit from augmented post-remission therapy. However, the asparaginase and intravenous methotrexate used in the augmented treatment regimen is associated with more adverse events than is the standard post-remission treatment regimen.”
“Patients under treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may have residual sleep apnea (RSA). The main objective of our study was to evaluate a novel auto-CPAP for the diagnosis of RSA. All patients referred to the sleep laboratory to undergo CPAP polysomnography were evaluated. Patients treated with oxygen or noninvasive ventilation and split-night polysomnography (PSG), PSG with artifacts, or total sleep time less than 180 min were excluded. The PSG was manually analyzed before generating the automatic report from auto-CPAP.

Libraries were constructed from rust-infected and non-infected le

Libraries were constructed from rust-infected and non-infected leaves of resistant (PI509501) and susceptible (PI441101) genotypes of G. tomentella, and subjected to subtractive hybridization. A total of 1,536 sequences were obtained from these cDNA libraries from which 195 contigs and 865 singletons were identified. Of these sequenced cDNA clones, functions of 646 clones (61%) were determined. In addition, 160

clones (15%) had significant homology to hypothetical proteins; while the remaining 254 clones (24%) did not reveal any hits. Of those 646 clones with known functions, different genes encoding protein products involved in metabolism, cell defense, energy, protein synthesis, transcription, and cellular transport were identified. These findings were

subsequently confirmed by real time RT-PCR and dot blot hybridization.”
“Background: JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a widespread human polyomavirus that usually resides latently in its host, but can be reactivated under immune-compromised conditions potentially causing Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes its own microRNA, jcv-miR-J1. Methods: We have investigated in 50 healthy subjects whether jcv-miR-J1-5p (and its variant jcv-miR-J1a-5p) can be detected in plasma or urine. Results: selleck kinase inhibitor We found that the overall detection rate of JCPyV miRNA was 74% (37/50) in plasma and 62% (31/50) in urine. Subjects were further categorized based on JCPyV VP1 serology status and viral shedding. In seronegative IWR-1-endo inhibitor subjects,

JCPyV miRNA was found in 86% (12/14) and 57% (8/14) of plasma and urine samples, respectively. In seropositive subjects, the detection rate was 69% (25/36) and 64% (23/36) for plasma and urine, respectively. Furthermore, in seropositive subjects shedding virus in urine, higher levels of urinary viral miRNAs were observed, compared to non-shedding seropositive subjects (P smaller than 0.001). No correlation was observed between urinary and plasma miRNAs. Conclusion: These data indicate that analysis of circulating viral miRNAs divulge the presence of latent JCPyV infection allowing further stratification of seropositive individuals. Also, our data indicate higher infection rates than would be expected from serology alone.”
“BACKGROUND: The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of race/ethnicity and tumor subtype in pathologic complete response (pCR) following treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 2074 patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2008 who were treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy were included.

“This study was performed to compare the impact of fatigue

“This study was performed to compare the impact of fatigue on different aspects of quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) CDK inhibitor and fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). This study involved subjects with FM (n = 45) and RA (n = 44). Impact of fatigue on physical, cognitive, and psychosocial status was measured with Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate impact of fatigue on quality of life by taking into account clinical symptoms and disease activity scores in these two patient

groups. Although the severity of fatigue assessed by FSS was the same in FM and RA; according to Fatigue Impact Scale, fatigue has higher impact on cognitive function in FM (mean +/- A SD; 28.8 +/- A 19.9), and on the other hand, it has higher impact on mainly physical PF-6463922 cost component (mean +/- A SD; 26.3 +/- A 4.9) in RA. Regarding all the clinical symptoms and disease activity scores, multiple regression models showed that fatigue together with pain affected the HRQoL (SF-36) in both patient groups. Fatigue has different impacts on QoL in FM and RA, respectively. Together with pain, fatigue lead FM patients to see disease as having worse health in terms of mental function, whereas it leads to poor health in terms of physical function

in RA.”
“Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure BTK phosphorylation the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies.\n\nMethods: The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 cine scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as

breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine eta(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum Sigma eta(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with eta(i) = 0.

(C) 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesth

(C) 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Persisting Symptoms after Elective Sigmoid Resection for Sigmoid Diverticulitis\n\nIn the past, sigmoid resection in patients with recurrent sigmoid diverticulitis was typically recommended after the second episode. In recent years, this practice has been questioned as well as abandoned in favor of a more individual decision making. After elective sigmoid resection for diverticulitis, however, approximately a quarter of all patients report persistent or new-onset symptoms. In the minority of cases, DMH1 purchase actually genuine recurrent diverticulitis plays a role,

in which the height of the anastomosis is a determining factor. Often patients report about symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome, and studies in the recent years also show an overlap of

irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease. Recent studies suggest that visceral hypersensitivity and markers AG-120 molecular weight of inflammation are correlated in patients with symptomatic diverticular disease. In conjunction with predisposing factors such as obesity, these conditions may be a key reason for persistent complaints. Therefore, on the one hand, it will be up to the physician to identify those patients who are at high risk for complications and have a high probability of remaining symptom-free postoperatively. On the other hand, patients who will GSK1838705A chemical structure most likely not benefit from surgery should be directed towards other treatment modalities.”
“Background: Bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas are benign hyperproliferative lesions induced by Bovine Papillomaviruses (BPVs). Bcl-2 is an important anti-apoptotic protein which is expressed in several cancer types. In contrary, p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that mediates cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence in response to cellular stresses. Findings: Here, we investigated immunohistochemically and biochemically, the expression

of bcl-2 and p53 in a subset of BPV positive fibropapillomas and bovine normal skin. Normal skin samples showed a weak signal for both proteins in the cytoplasm of the basal cells. Nine out of twelve (75%) tumour samples stained positive for bcl-2 throughout basal and parabasal layers, with most of cells showing strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. Nine out of twelve (75%) fibropapillomas were found to be positive for p53 expression, showing a strong cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining of p53 protein mainly in the basal and parabasal layers. Conclusions: Our data reveal an altered bcl-2 and p53 immunoreactivity in bovine cutaneous fibropapillomas, suggesting involvement of these two proteins in the cutaneous neoplastic transformation through an impaired apoptotic process.”
“Aim This study aimed to compare the effect of extended margin and conventional bleaching trays on tooth bleaching and tooth sensitivity.