High-risk patients, including (but not limited to) patients who s

High-risk patients, including (but not limited to) patients who smoke, patients who are undergoing revision surgery, or patients who suffer from medical conditions that may compromise fusion potential, may appreciate a greater benefit BYL719 in vivo with supplemental pedicle screw fixation. It is recommended, therefore, that the use of pedicle screw fixation as a supplement to PLF be reserved for those patients in whom there is an increased risk of nonunion when treated with only PLF.”
“Human patient simulation can improve the medical knowledge in view of possible critical incidents. Moreover teamwork,

reaction, decision processes, and as a basic tool communication may improve after repeated training. These properties can be measured. Using the four levels of Kirkpatrick as a basis of documentation, it can be shown that repeated simulator training is of benefit, especially if human factors are an integrated part of the training. The use of human factors is an integral part of simulation training. In addition to the quality of medical care, these factors can also be measured. Results show that teams with repeated training perform better than at the beginning. Therefore, simulator training with the involvement

of human factors should be carried out at regular intervals.”
“The VP5 protein of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was shown in previous Stem Cell Compound Library reports to be involved in the cytopathogenicity of IBDV. Here, using a rescued VP5-deficient IBDV infectious clone, it was demonstrated that a lack of VP5 expression significantly hinders the release of viral progeny from infected cells but does

not block intracellular virus production. Monoclonal VP5-expressing Vero cells did not exhibit induction of cell death. Using VP5-specific mAbs generated in our laboratory as a tool, it was shown by flow cytometry analysis that VP5 was detectable on the surface of IBDV-infected and monoclonal VP5-expressing Vero cells and bursal cells in IBDV-infected chickens. Taken together, these data suggest that the VP5 protein is involved in regulation of the release of intracellular IBDV virions and may be used as a cell-surface marker for detecting IBDV-infected cells in FCM analysis. This c-Met inhibitor study contributes to the further characterization of the VP5 protein, which will allow a better understanding of the mechanism of IBDV pathogenicity.”
“In this paper, a new seizure detection system aimed at assisting in a rapid review of prolonged intracerebral EEG recordings is described. It is based on quantifying the sharpness of the waveform, one of the most important electrographic EEG features utilized by experts for an accurate and reliable identification of a seizure. The waveform morphology is characterized by a measure of sharpness as defined by the slope of the half-waves. A train of abnormally sharp waves resulting from subsequent filtering are used to identify seizures.

Levodopa alone resulted in marked dyskinesia induction but little

Levodopa alone resulted in marked dyskinesia induction but little or no dyskinesia resulted from the administration of pramipexole. From clay 36, some animals were treated with a combination of levodopa (3.125-6.25 mg/kg plus carbidopa 12.5 mg/kg p.o. BAY 63-2521 solubility dmso BID) and pramipexole (0.1-0.2 mg/kg p.o. SID).

This improved motor disability to a greater extent than occurred with levodopa alone. Importantly, while dyskinesia was greater than that produced by pramipexole alone, the combination resulted in less intense dyskinesia than produced by levodopa alone. These results suggest that pramipexole could be administered with a reduced dose of levodopa to minimize dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. (C) 2010 Movement Disorder Society”
“Objective: To characterize downstream effectors of p300 acetyltransferase in the myocardium. Background: Acetyltransferase p300 is a central driver of the hypertrophic response to increased workload, but its biological targets and downstream effectors are incompletely known.\n\nMethods and Results: Mice expressing a myocyte-restricted transgene encoding acetyltransferase p300, previously

shown to develop spontaneous hypertrophy, were observed to undergo robust compensatory blood vessel growth together with increased angiogenic gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated binding of p300 to the enhancers of the angiogenic regulators Angpt1 and Egln3. selleck compound SNX-5422 cost Interestingly, p300 overexpression in vivo was also associated with relative upregulation of several members of the anti-angiogenic

miR-17 similar to 92 cluster in vivo. Confirming this finding, both miR-17-3p and miR-20a were upregulated in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes following adenoviral transduction of p300. Relative expression of most members of the 17,92 cluster was similar in all 4 cardiac chambers and in other organs, however, significant downregulation of miR-17-3p and miR-20a occurred between 1 and 8 months of age in both wt and tg mice. The decline in expression of these microRNAs was associated with increased expression of VEGFA, a validated miR-20a target. In addition, miR-20a was demonstrated to directly repress p300 expression through a consensus binding site in the p300 3′UTR. In vivo transduction of p300 resulted in repression both of p300 and of p300-induced angiogenic transcripts.\n\nConclusion: p300 drives an angiogenic transcription program during hypertrophy that is fine-tuned in part through direct repression of p300 by miR-20a.”
“Post-translational histone modifications play key roles in gene regulation, development, and differentiation, but their dynamics in living organisms remain almost completely unknown. To address this problem, we developed a genetically encoded system for tracking histone modifications by generating fluorescent modification-specific intracellular antibodies (mintbodies) that can be expressed in vivo.

MORAb-004 was administered intravenously once weekly in 4-week cy

MORAb-004 was administered intravenously once weekly in 4-week cycles. Objectives included

determination of the safety of multiple infusions of MORAb-004, identification of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetic modeling, detection of any anti-human antibody response, and assessment of objective radiographic response to therapy. Results: Thirty-six patients were treated at 10 dose levels of MORAb-004, ranging from 0.0625 to 16 mg/kg. Drug-related adverse events were primarily grade 1-2 infusion toxicities. Dose-limiting toxicity of grade 3 vomiting was observed at 16 mg/kg. Eighteen of 32 evaluable patients across all doses achieved disease stability, with minor radiographic responses observed in 4 patients (pancreatic neuroendocrine, hepatocellular, and sarcoma tumor types). Pharmacokinetics

showed MORAb-004 accumulation beginning at 4 mg/kg and saturable elimination beginning at 0.25 selleck chemical mg/kg. Exposure increased in a greater-than-dose-proportional manner with terminal half-life increasing proportionally with dose. The MTD was identified as 12 mg/kg. Conclusions: Preliminary antitumor activity was observed. Safety profile, pharmacokinetics, and early check details antitumor activity suggest that MORAb-004 is safe at doses up to 12 mg/kg and should be studied further for efficacy. (C)2014 AACR.”
“This phase I trial was designed to develop a new effective and well-tolerated regimen for patients with aggressive B cell lymphoma not eligible for front-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy or aggressive second-line treatment strategies. The combination of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) on day 1), bendamustine

(70 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2), and lenalidomide was tested with a dose escalation of lenalidomide at three dose levels (10, 15, or 20 mg/day) using a 3 + 3 design. Courses were repeated ZD1839 mw every 4 weeks. The recommended dose was defined as one level below the dose level identifying a parts per thousand yen2/6 patients with a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during the first cycle. Thirteen patients were eligible for analysis. Median age was 77 years. WHO performance status was 0 or 1 in 12 patients. The Charlson Comorbidity Index showed relevant comorbidities in all patients. Two DLTs occurred at the second dose level (15 mg/day) within the first cycle: one patient had prolonged grade 3 neutropenia, and one patient experienced grade 4 cardiac adverse event (myocardial infarction). Additional grade 3 and 4 toxicities were as follows: neutropenia (31 %), thrombocytopenia (23 %), cardiac toxicity (31 %), fatigue (15 %), and rash (15 %). The dose of lenalidomide of 10 mg/day was recommended for a subsequent phase II in combination with rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 and bendamustine 70 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2.”
“Background and Purpose The histamine H-4 receptor has a primary role in inflammatory functions, making it an attractive target for the treatment of asthma and refractory inflammation.

On the basis of these spectroscopic results and previously report

On the basis of these spectroscopic results and previously reported site-directed mutagenesis studies, inspection of the PSI crystal structure reveals a cluster of three highly conserved residues, His(D95), Glu(D103), and Asp(C23), as a likely

Cu2+ binding site. The discovery of surface metal sites on the acceptor side of PSI provides a unique opportunity to probe the stromal region of PSI and the interactions of PSI with its reaction partner, the soluble electron carrier protein ferredoxin.”
“Isolated methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) results either from a defect in the mitochondria] enzyme methylmalonylCoA mutase (MCM), or in the intracellular conversion of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) into its active coenzyme. adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). Mutations in the MMAB gene affect BEZ235 research buy the function of the enzyme ATP: cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ATR) and the production of AdoCbl. Measurement of MCM function in cultured patient fibroblasts, followed by somatic cell complementation PF-03084014 purchase analysis in cases where MCM function is decreased, has classically been used

to diagnose the cblB cobalamin disorder. A patient with persistent MMA, who could not be diagnosed using traditional somatic cell studies, was subsequently shown by sequencing in a clinical laboratory to contain two variants in the MMAB gene. This observation brings into question whether somatic cell studies have failed to diagnose other cblB patients with mild cellular phenotypes. A high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) assay was developed for the MMAB gene. It was used to scan 96 reference GSK1120212 in vivo samples and two cohorts of patients: 42 patients diagnosed with cblB by complementation studies; and 181 patients with undiagnosed MMA. MMAB mutations, including

one novel nonsense mutation (c.12 C > A [p.C4X]), were identified in all members of the cblB cohort. Four patients with undiagnosed MMA, including the index case described above, were found to contain variants in the MMAB gene: c.185C > T (p.T62M), c394T > C (p.C132R), c.398C > T (p.S133F), c.521C > T (p.S174L), c.572G > A (p.R191Q). Only the index case was found to have two variants, suggesting that somatic cell studies diagnose almost all cblB patients. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Undesired cell migration after targeted cell transplantation potentially limits beneficial effects for cardiac regeneration. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in several cellular processes, including cell migration. Here, we attempt to reduce human cardiomyocyte progenitor cell (hCMPC) migration via increasing microRNA-155 (miR-155) levels, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) were transfected with pre-miR-155, anti-miR-155 or control-miR (ctrl-miR), followed by scratch- and transwell-assays. These functional assays displayed that miR-155 over-expression efficiently inhibited cell migration by 38 +/- 3.6% and 59 +/- 3.7% respectively.

Tumor-derived microvesicles did not induce apoptosis in Jurkat T-

Tumor-derived microvesicles did not induce apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells. In contrast, NSCLC cell lines down-regulated CD3 epsilon but not CD3 zeta chain expression in Jurkat T-cells; this effect was induced by

soluble factors but not by microvesicles. In lung adenocarcinoma patients, significant decreases of MFI values for CD3 epsilon, but not CD3 zeta, were found in CD4+T and CD8+T cells from pleural effusion compared to peripheral blood and in peripheral blood of patients compared to healthy donors.\n\nConclusions Our data do not support the tumor counterattack hypothesis for NSCLC. Nonetheless, down-regulation of CD3 epsilon in T-cells induced by NSCLC cells might lead to T-cell dysfunction.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional gene Compound C mw regulation by repressing the expression

of their target genes through inhibition of translation and/or cleavage of mRNAs. In plants, the target genes of miRNAs usually belong to large gene families, and miRNA regulation is gained for individual genes throughout gene family evolution. To explore the selective effect of miRNA regulation on their target genes, we investigated the pattern of polymorphism and interspecific divergence in 11 multigene families that include target genes of ancient miRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the levels of polymorphism and divergence in target genes are significantly reduced, whereas those for nontarget genes are very similar to the genomic averages. This pattern is particularly clear at synonymous sites; we found that the reduction of ABT-737 cost synonymous variation is caused by selection for optimal codons, which increase high throughput screening assay the efficiency and accuracy of translation. Based on these results, we conclude that tuning via miRNA regulation has a strong impact on the evolution of target genes through which highly sophisticated regulation systems have been established.miRNA system, gene duplication, codon usage bias.”
“Proteins evolve at very different rates and, most notably, at rates inversely

proportional to the level at which they are produced. The relative frequency of highly expressed proteins in the proteome, and thus their impact on the cell budget, increases steeply with growth rate. The maximal growth rate is a key life-history trait reflecting trade-offs between rapid growth and other fitness components. We show that the maximal growth rate is weakly affected by genetic drift. The negative correlation between protein expression levels and evolutionary rate and the positive correlation between expression levels of highly expressed proteins and growth rates, suggest that investment in growth affects the evolutionary rate of proteins, especially the highly expressed ones. Accordingly, analysis of 61 families of orthologs in 74 proteobacteria shows that differences in evolutionary rates between lowly and highly expressed proteins depend on maximal growth rates.

2 was a mixture of the addition products of C-60 with 9,11-dialky

2 was a mixture of the addition products of C-60 with 9,11-dialkyl radicals of methyl 9,12-octadecadienoate (2a) and with 11,13-dialkyl radicals of methyl 9,12-octadecadienoate (2b). When MeL containing 0.1 mol% C-60 was autoxidized

at 60 degrees C under air-sufficient and air-insufficient conditions, C-60 could suppress the formation of MeL hydroperoxides in both conditions. The reaction product of C-60 first formed was 2 even under air-sufficient conditions, and then 1 was accumulated. The results indicate that the primary antioxidative action of C-60 would be trapping of chain-initiating carbon-centered radicals of unsaturated lipid to form 2. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Homoclausenamide was synthesized for the first

time, and the intramolecular cyclization study of N-methyl-3-phenyl-N-(2-(E)-phenylethenyl)-trans(cis)-oxiranecarboxamide well demonstrated how the stereochemistry affects the cyclization paths. (c) 2007 Elsevier p38 MAPK pathway Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Between LY294002 April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 +/- 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage.\n\nResults: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, Nepicastat concentration 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure,

and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation.\n\nConclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Upon further heating, phase 6I transforms to a new anhydrous poly

Upon further heating, phase 6I transforms to a new anhydrous polymorph 6II, which transforms upon cooling to a further new phase 6III. Thermogravimetric measurements performed in tandem with differential scanning calorimetry as well as infrared spectroscopic investigations are in agreement with these findings. The de/resolvation behavior is accompanied by a dramatic change in their magnetic properties: The dihydrate check details phase shows antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, whereas ferromagnetic properties are observed for the trimorphic anhydrate system. This magnetic sponge-like behavior can be reversibly

cycled upon de/resolvation of the material.”
“Adsorption of synthetic flue gas on a commercial zeolite 13X (APGIIA) with targeted Si/Al ratio has been studied aiming to design

an adsorption process for CO2 capture from post-combustion power plants. Adsorption equilibrium of pure gases (CO2 and N2) has been measured in a wide range of temperatures: 303, 333, 363, 393, 423, 473 K. Adsorption equilibrium was fitted with the multisite Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of the zeolite pellets for CO2 is 4.54 mol/kg and 0.26 mol/kg for N2 at 303 K and 100 kPa. The dynamic behavior of the pellets in a fixed bed was also studied buy MK-1775 by measuring breakthrough curves. Adsorption and desorption was analyzed in order to understand the regeneration of the adsorbent. Based on equilibrium and kinetic data, two different

adsorption technologies were simulated: Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) and Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA). A CO2 recovery of 63.0% with 72.1% purity was obtained using a five-step selleck chemical PSA cycle included rinse step. In a 5-step TSA process, however, a CO2 purity of 78.7% and recovery of 76.6% can be achieved under a heating temperature of 423 K.”
“Background: Clinicians and patients find prognosis and end-of-life care discussions challenging. Misunderstanding one’s prognosis can contribute to poor decision-making and end-of-life quality of life. A question prompt list (booklet of questions patients can ask clinicians) targeting these issues may help overcome communication barriers. None exists for end-of-life discussions outside the palliative care setting.\n\nAim: To develop/pilot a question prompt list facilitating discussion/planning of end-of-life care for oncology patients with advanced cancer from Australia and the United States and to explore acceptability, perceived benefits/challenges of using the question prompt list, suggestions for improvements and the necessity of country-specific adaptations.\n\nDesign: An expert panel developed a question prompt list targeting prognosis and end-of-life issues. Australian/US semi-structured interviews and one focus group elicited feedback about the question prompt list. Transcribed data were analysed using qualitative methods.

Importantly, blockade of NADPH oxidase using apocynin diminished

Importantly, blockade of NADPH oxidase using apocynin diminished the induction of high Ang II stress markers in isolated cardiomyocytes and in the mouse heart. These effects were associated with inhibition of NADPH oxidase-mediated AKT/mTOR/S6K and ERK signaling pathways. The present results demonstrate the hypothesis that exposure to continuous high Ang II results in a hypertensive cellular memory that remains, even when cells or mice are switched back to normal Ang II. This phenomenon was associated with NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

A potential physicochemical interaction between epidural local anesthetics and extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) could negate the sustained release. In this study, we sought to determine the pharmacokinetic and drug effects of prior epidural lidocaine administration on EREM.\n\nMETHODS: Thirty Ispinesib healthy women undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled in this randomized study. Patients Etomoxir mouse received 8 mg EREM 1 hour after either a combined spinal-epidural (intrathecal bupivacaine

and fentanyl 20 mu g with no epidural medication; group SE) or an epidural anesthetic (epidural 2% lidocaine with fentanyl 100 mu g; group E). Maximal concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), and AUC(0-last) (area under the concentration-time curve until the last plasma concentration that was below the limit of quantitation) for morphine levels were determined from a plasma sample at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes, and 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours. Drug effects including pain, analgesic use, and side effects were measured for 72 hours after cesarean delivery.\n\nRESULTS: Epidural lidocaine administration (20-35 mL) 1 hour before epidural EREM administration increased the Cmax in group E (11.1 +/- 4.9) compared with group SE (8.3 +/- 7.1 ng/mL) (P = 0.038). There were no significant effects on

Tmax and AUC(0-last) of venous morphine between the groups (P > 0.05). There was an increased incidence in vomiting, oxygen use, and hypotension in group E (patients who received lidocaine before EREM).\n\nCONCLUSION: A large dose of epidural lidocaine 1 hour before EREM administration alters ML323 nmr the pharmacokinetics and drug effects of EREM. Clinicians must apply caution when EREM is administered even 1 hour after an epidural lidocaine “top-up” for cesarean delivery. (Anesth Analg 2011;113:251-8)”
“Spontaneous beat gestures are an integral part of the paralinguistic context during face-to-face conversations. Here we investigated the time course of beat-speech integration in speech perception by measuring ERPs evoked by words pronounced with or without an accompanying beat gesture, while participants watched a spoken discourse.

Methods AMs, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 88 volunteer

Methods AMs, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from 88 volunteers with stable-to-moderate COPD, were incubated with respiratory pathogens (NTHI, Moraxella catarrhalis (MC), Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide, Pam(3)Cys) and elicited IL-8 and TNF-alpha were measured by microsphere flow cytometry. NF-kappa B nuclear translocation was measured by colorimetric assay. AM TLR2 and TLR4 expression was determined by immunolabeling and quantitation of mean fluorescent indices. Participants were monitored prospectively for occurrence of COPD exacerbations for 1 year following bronchoscopy. Non-parametric

analyses were used to compare exacerbation-prone and non-exacerbation-prone individuals. Results 29 subjects had CT99021 cell line at least one exacerbation in the follow-up period (exacerbation-prone) and 59 remained exacerbation-free (non-exacerbation-prone). AMs of exacerbation-prone COPD donors were more refractory to cytokine induction by NTHI (p=0.02), MC (p=0.045) and SP (p=0.046), and to TLR2 (p=0.07) and TLR4 (p=0.028) ligands, and had diminished NF-kappa B nuclear activation, compared with non-exacerbationprone counterparts. AMs of exacerbation-prone subjects were more refractory to TLR2 upregulation by MC and SP (p=0.04 each). Conclusions Our results support a paradigm of impaired innate P5091 cost responses of COPD AMs to respiratory pathogens,

mediated by impaired TLR responses, underlying a propensity for exacerbations in COPD.”
“The range and demand for clinical genetic services will continue to grow, and now is an idea I time to assess current service quality. Based on the previous work of quality professional organizations such as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) which is now known as The Joint Commission (TJC), an independent group

of genetic and healthcare quality professionals (InheritQual) drafted and defined a list of potential quality indicators for clinical genetics. Perspectives on the appropriateness and the practicality of each indicator were surveyed and analyzed. SYN-117 solubility dmso The Quality Special Interest Group of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) chartered the survey results. After measuring the degree of consensus, an expert panel was selected to review the quality indicators based on practicality and applicability. This expert panel comprised of members of the ACMG Quality Sig workgroup met for final consensus and developed a methodology to pilot these indicators. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Latinas have lower quality of life than Caucasian cancer survivors but we know little about factors associated with quality of life in this growing population. Bilingual staff conducted interviews with a national cross-sectional sample of 264 Latina breast cancer survivors. Quality of life was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B).

Conduction mechanism in the freeze-out regime has been discussed

Conduction mechanism in the freeze-out regime has been discussed. Analysis of the admittance peak, E1 together with the characteristic features in the frequency dependence of the conduction in freeze out regime suggest that conduction properties of the n-GaInNAsSb material in the freeze-out condition is governed by Mott’s variable range hopping mechanism. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://0-dx.doi.org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.1063/1.4768716]“
“A detailed study of the difference in reactivity of the copolymerization reactions of styrene oxide vs.

propylene oxide with carbon dioxide utilizing binary (salen) cobalt(III) catalyst systems to provide perfectly alternating copolymers is reported. LY2090314 purchase This investigation focuses on the discrepancy exhibited by these two terminal epoxides for the preference for C-O bond cleavage during the ring-opening process. It was found that the nucleophilic ring-opening of styrene oxide occurs predominantly MK-2206 manufacturer at the methine C-alpha-O bond which leads to an inversion of configuration at the methine carbon center. This tendency results in a significantly lower reactivity as well as a deterrent for synthesizing stereoregular poly(styrene carbonate) when compared to the propylene

oxide/CO2 process. The chiral environment about the metal center had a notable effect on the regioselectivity of the ring-opening step for styrene oxide, with the methylene C-beta-O bond being preferentially cleaved. Using a binary catalyst system composed of an unsymmetrical (S, S, S)-salenCo(III) complex in conjunction with the onium salt PPNY (PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine) iminium, and Y = 2,4-dinitrophenoxy), a highly regioregular ring-opening step was observed with a concomitant

96% retention of configuration at the methine carbon center.”
“Fragments of 2 coral HKI-272 cost species (Acropora nasuta and Pocillopora damicornis), collected from the South China Sea, were incubated for 94 d under controlled conditions of pCO(2) = 389, 700, and 1214 mu atm. Our incubation experiments showed that the net calcification rate of A. nasuta responded negatively to elevated pCO(2) in both short and mid-term incubations. In contrast, the net calcification rate of P. damicornis increased under elevated pCO(2) during the first 17 d, but then returned to background rates. Based on previous models, our modified models showed that the different responses of these 2 coral species depended on the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH levels in coral calcifying fluid. In the studied models, the positive responses of coral calcification to higher pCO(2) could be explained by either low DIC due to a higher photosynthesis rate or a stronger H+ pump.