“Background and Objectives: Recent research shows that loc

“Background and Objectives: Recent research shows that locally injected dexmedetomidine enhances the local anesthetic potency of lidocaine via the alpha-2A adrenoceptor selleck screening library subtype in guinea pigs. However, little is known about the effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on the peripheral vascular response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on the peripheral vascular response, measuring skin blood flow in the injected area in guinea pigs. Methods: Dexmedetomidine was intracutaneously injected at a volume of

0.1 mL into the backs of guinea pigs, and further injected combined with yohimbine, a selective antagonist of alpha-2 adrenoceptors, or prazosin, a selective antagonist of alpha-1 adrenoceptors and an antagonist of both alpha-2B and alpha-2C adrenoceptor subtypes. Skin blood flow was measured until 60 minutes after injection using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Furthermore, systemic arterial blood pressure and pulse of the guinea pigs were monitored via a catheter inserted into the carotid artery throughout every experiment. Results: Dexmedetomidine at a concentration of 1 mu M significantly decreased the skin blood flow in a dose-dependent manner with no changes in the mean blood pressure and pulse. Yohimbine completely antagonized the effect of dexmedetomidine, but prazosin did not. Conclusions: The results reveal that

locally injected dexmedetomidine at a concentration of

1 mu M induced peripheral vasoconstriction Bcl-2 inhibitor without a systemic cardiovascular response via the peripheral alpha-2A adrenoceptor Selleckchem LBH589 subtype.”
“The kinetics of the phasic synchronous and delayed asynchronous release of acetylcholine quanta was studied at the neuromuscular junctions of aging rats from infant to mature animals at various frequencies of rhythmic stimulation of the motor nerve. We found that in infants 6 (P6) and 10 (P10) days after birth a strongly asynchronous phase of quantal release was observed, along with a reduced number of quanta compared to the synapses of adults. The rise time and decay of uni-quantal end-plate currents were significantly longer in infant synapses. The presynaptic immunostaining revealed that the area of the synapses in infants was significantly (up to six times) smaller than in mature junctions. The intensity of delayed asynchronous release in infants increased with the frequency of stimulation more than in adults. A blockade of the ryanodine receptors, which can contribute to the formation of delayed asynchronous release, had no effect on the kinetics of delayed secretion in the infants unlike synapses of adults. Therefore, high degree of asynchrony of quantal release in infants is not associated with the activity of ryanodine receptors and with the liberation of calcium ions from intracellular calcium stores. (C) 2014 ISDN.

Design: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover

\n\nDesign: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods 3MA separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects

met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables.\n\nResults: Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention.\n\nConclusions: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different

effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:468-76.”
“Assays PF-00299804 research buy of cardiac troponin have become a cornerstone in Selleckchem GSK461364 the diagnosis of myocardial infarction across a broad range of clinical settings. In critically ill patients, cardiac troponin is detectable in the plasma in up to 60% of cases, and this incidence may increase further as

assays become more sensitive. Troponin rises in critical care are commonly unrelated to pathology in the coronary arteries, but are frequently associated with conditions such as sepsis and respiratory failure. Such non-coronary troponin release is a significant, independent predictor of poor patient outcomes, and can be incorporated into risk scoring systems. Despite adding prognostic value, treatment for non-coronary troponin rises remains limited to management of the underlying cause, and restoration of a favourable balance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. Conversely, troponin rises secondary to myocardial infarctions are amenable to the same interventions as in any other setting, albeit with additional diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this review, we will explore the utility of troponin as a biomarker in critical care, and we will outline a pragmatic management strategy for this patient population. (Minerva Anestesiol 2012;78:1039-45)”
“Introduction: Childhood Obesity has become a Public Health priority due to it high prevalence and consequences in health status.

Life Sci J 2012;9(4):5588-5592] (ISSN: 1097-8135) http://www lif

Life Sci J 2012;9(4):5588-5592] (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 830″
“Introduction: Passive fit has been considered an important requirement for the longevity of implant-supported prostheses. Among the different steps of prostheses construction, casting is a feature that can influence the precision of fit and consequently the uniformity of possible deformation among abutments upon the framework connection.\n\nPurpose:

This study aimed at evaluating the deformation of abutments after the connection of frameworks either cast in one piece or after soldering.\n\nMaterials and Methods: A master model was used to simulate a human mandible with 5 implants. Ten frameworks were fabricated on cast models and divided into 2 groups. Strain gauges were attached to the mesial and distal sides of the abutments to capture their deformation BTSA1 Navitoclax after the framework’s screw retentions were tightened to the abutments.\n\nResults: The mean values of deformation were submitted to a 3-way analysis of variance that revealed significant differences between procedures and the abutment side. The results showed that none of the frameworks presented a complete passive fit.\n\nConclusion: The soldering procedure led to a better although uneven distribution of compression strains on the abutments. (Implant Dent 2013;22:193-198)”

& objectives: Cerebral hypoxia is known to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cerebrovascular dementia. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flavonoids from aerial part of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SSF) on potassium cyanide (KCN) -induced hypoxic cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, and to understand the probable mechanism.\n\nMethods: The rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 was subjected to hypoxia by 200 mu M KCN for 30 min. The cytotoxicity of KCN was assessed by cell viability assay, morphological observation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, malondialdehyde

(MDA) production, SHP099 supplier and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase measurements. The effects of SSF on the changes induced by KCN in PC12 cells were detected.\n\nResults: Treatment of PC12 cells with 200 mu M KCN for 30 min increased cell death when compared with control, as assayed by MTT reduction, morphological observation and lactate dehydrogenase release measurement. These cell lesions were accompanied by disorders in SOD and Na+-K+-ATPase activities as well as MDA production. In contrast, the PC12 cells pre-treated with SSF for 24 h prior to 200 AM KCN exposure have shown protection against hypoxic toxicity. The KCN – induced decreased cell viability and activities of SOD and Na+-K+-ATPase, as well as increased MDA production were reversed by SSF pre-treatment.

Serum insulin was decreased, whereas serum osteocalcin, insulin-l

Serum insulin was decreased, whereas serum osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor 1, osteoprotegerin, pyridinoline, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand concentrations were increased. In experiment 2, expression of genes in adipose tissue associated with apoptosis, lipid mobilization, insulin

sensitivity, and thermogenesis was increased, whereas Bcl-2 inhibitor expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and maturation was decreased regardless of mode of administration. Thus ICV injection of leptin promotes expression of pro-osteogenic factors in bone marrow, leading to enhanced bone formation in ob/ob mice. (C) 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.”
“In recent years, interest has increased regarding the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for metabolic profiling, human scent identification of the living and deceased, and diagnostic potentials for certain diseases that are known for its association with distinct odor. In this study, a method has been developed that is capable GDC-0994 price of sampling, identifying, and differentiating the VOCs present in various biological specimens of forensic importance (blood, breath, buccal cells, and urine) taken from the same individuals. The developed method requires a pretreatment step to remove targeted VOCs from the sampling apparatus prior to sampling of the individual specimens. The

VOCs collected from the biological specimens were characterized by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with ratios of the most abundant and frequent VOCs compared using qualitative and semiquantitative methods.

Blood, breath, and buccal cells required extraction procedures ranging from 18 to 21 h in BEZ235 manufacturer order to optimize the limit of detection, which averaged 5-15 ng across these specimens. The optimal method for measuring urine VOCs was complete in less than an hour; however, the limit of detection was higher with a range of 10-40 ng quantifiable. The demonstrated sensitivity and reproducibility of the methods developed allow for population studies of human scent VOCs from various biological specimen collection kits used in the forensic and clinical fields.”
“Considering the climatic aptitude the fruit plants are classified in: tropical, subtropical and temperate. This traditional classification was very effective during a long period of time. Based on more update knowledge of the origin centers of the different species, the technological advances in the fruit crops and, in the fruit conservation and specially the genetic breeding created exceptional for the cropping of tropical species and temperate in subtropical climate.\n\nIn this research were select the atemoya, persimmon, fig tree and guava crop based not only in the national and regional importance but also in the different contributions that the scientific research offered to the fruit plants.

“Objective: to examine the effect of individual counsellin

“Objective: to examine the effect of individual counselling on diet and physical activity from pregnancy to six months post partum, or from birth to six months post partum, on weight retention among Taiwanese women.\n\nDesign: a randomised controlled trial assigned participants to two experimental groups [from pregnancy to six months post partum (EP) and from birth to six months post partum (EPP)] and one comparison group.\n\nSetting:

a 3900-bed medical centre in northern Taiwan with around 3000 births annually.\n\nParticipants: a sample of 189 women who had regular check-ups during pregnancy and gave birth at the medical centre.\n\nInterventions: the comparison group received the routine outpatient Cyclosporin A ic50 department 5-Fluoracil cell line obstetric educational programme. The EP group attended regularly scheduled clinic visits with individualised dietary and physical

activity education plans from 16 gestational weeks to six months post partum, and received on brochure. The EPP group received the same educational intervention as the EP group from 24-48 hours after birth to six months post partum.\n\nMeasurements: body weight, body mass index, health-promoting behaviour and psycho-social variables (self-efficacy, body image, depression and social support).\n\nFindings: average gestational weight gain was 14.02, 15.27 and 16.22 kg in the three EP, EPP and comparison groups respectively, and average weight retention at six months post partum was 2.34, 4.06 and 5.08 kg in the three groups, respectively.\n\nKey conclusions: a diet and physical activity intervention from pregnancy is effective for reducing post-pregnancy weight retention.\n\nImplications for practice: the findings of the present study should be taken into consideration when incorporating significant others and weight-loss maintenance strategies

with interventions for a healthier family lifestyle. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All CA3 rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Fulvic acids (FA), the main organic compounds in landfill leachate, are toxic and bio-resistant organic compounds. Ozonation is effective in removing non-biodegradable components and the addition of catalysts can improve the removal rates. The objective of this study is to prepare and improve CeO2/AC catalyst for catalytic ozonation of FA. RESULTS: The cerium precursor, calcination atmosphere and calcination temperature changed the percentage of Ce3+ on the surface, thus affecting the catalytic performance of CeO2/AC catalyst. A linear relationship was established between the correcting apparent rate constant of FA degradation (k(app)/S-BET) and the percentage of Ce3+ on the surface. The CeO2/AC with 5% of Ce loading and calcined under hydrogen atmosphere at 450 degrees C showed the highest catalytic activity, allowing a FA removal efficiency of 83%. The FA removal efficiency and ozone utilization efficiency were enhanced in O-3/CeO2/AC compared with ozonation alone.

“The potential

“The potential click here risks of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic

arch surgery have been well documented. Antegrade cerebral perfusion may ameliorate brain injury but still involves variable periods of cerebral and visceral ischaemia. We describe a novel “branch-first continuous perfusion” technique which avoids both deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. This brings us closer to the goal of arch surgery without cerebral or visceral ischaemia and the morbidity of deep hypothermia. (Heart, Lung and Circulation 2011;20:163-169) Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. All rights reserved.”
“ObjectiveThis study aims to estimate the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and avoidable AE in four hospital services before and after applying strategies for patient safety.\n\nDesignRetrospective study of two cohorts (2006 and 2009).\n\nSettingGeneral Surgery, Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit and Oncology services.\n\nParticipantsA sample of 365 patients (2006) and 232 in 2009 randomly selected from the services previously cited.\n\nInterventionsStrategies to improve patient safety (e.g. hand-hygiene

campaign).\n\nMain https://www.selleckchem.com/products/dibutyryl-camp-bucladesine.html outcome measuresAnalyses were made of the change in the incidence and type of AE and avoidable AE, number of procedures and additional days of hospital stay, and the concordance between two recording systems.\n\nResultsThe incidence of SIS3 ic50 patients with AE was 20.8% in 2006 compared with 28.9% in 2009 (P<0.05). Oncology had twofold more AE than did General Surgery [odds ratio (OR)=2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-3.86] for the same length of stay

and number of extrinsic risk factors. In 2006, 84.6% were considered avoidable, compared with 57.1% of 2009 (P<0.001). There was no difference in the average length of additional stay. In 2006, there were more additional procedures compared to 2009 (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.28-6.06). A concordance of 61% was found for the detection of AE with the two recording systems.\n\nConclusionsAn increased incidence in AEs was found after the strategies, while avoidable AE decreased, as did additional treatments and procedures. The measures implemented constitute a further step in reducing avoidance and a greater awareness of recording AEs in the discharge report.”
“Objectives: In this literature review, we concentrate on epidemiology and therapy of osseous echinococcosis, with an emphasis on the recurrence risk. Methods: Literature review 1930-2012. Results: We retrieved 200 publications based upon single case reports or case series, mostly from resource-poor settings. Among the 721 rural patients (22% females; median age 37 years), 60% of all reported cases were from the Mediterranean region and almost all patients were immune competent. Echinococcus granulosus was identified as the most frequent species.

Remarkably, in an in vivo cardiac ischemia/reperfusion mouse mode

Remarkably, in an in vivo cardiac ischemia/reperfusion mouse model, Sema4A was highly expressed in macrophages recruited at the injured area. We conclude that Sema4A activates a specialized and restricted genetic program in macrophages able to sustain angiogenesis and participates in their recruitment and activation in inflammatory injuries. The Journal of Immunology, 2012, 188: 4081-4092.”
“Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is a rare inherited platelet bleeding disorder characterized by low platelet count and abnormally large platelets (macrothrombocytopenia). Platelets from BSS patients are typically defective in surface expression of glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX-V,

a platelet-specific adhesion-signaling complex, composed of GPIb disulfide linked to GPIb, and noncovalently associated with GPIX and GPV. The major ligand-binding subunit, GPIb, binds the adhesive check details ligands von Willebrand factor (VWF) or thrombospondin, counterreceptors on activated Liproxstatin-1 endothelial cells (P-selectin) or activated leukocytes (integrin (M2)), and coagulation factors (thrombin, factors XI and XII, high-molecular-weight kininogen). The cytoplasmic domain of GPIb-IX-V interacts with the cytoskeletal protein, filamin-A via a binding site within the GPIb cytoplasmic tail, and with structural-signaling proteins including calmodulin, 14-3-3 and the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. GPIb is physically/functionally

co-associated on the platelet surface with the major platelet collagen receptor, GPVI. As such, it is easy to see how genetic defects impacting https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Neratinib(HKI-272).html GPIb-IX-V expression or function can have

significant consequences on normal platelet size, adhesion to VWF/collagen and/or stable thrombus formation, and why BSS is often associated with clinical bleeding. Furthermore, the rarity, multiple genetic causes, and variable clinical phenotype of BSS can complicate routine diagnosis. Here, we discuss how studies of BSS have contributed to platelet biology and recent studies to improve diagnosis and treatment.”
“10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B (XQ-1) is an intermediate for synthesizing 10-O-(N, N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methanesulfonate (XQ-1H), which is a novel ginkgolide B derivative and is being developed as a platelet-activating factor antagonist. A specific and rapid liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative analysis of XQ-1 and its three related impurities, which were 10-O-( N, N-dimethylaminoethyl)-11,12-seco-ginkgolide B (imp-1), 10-O-(N, N-dimethylaminoethyl)-11,12-seco-3,14-dehydroginkgolide B (imp-2) and 10-O-(N, N-dimethylaminoethyl)3,14-dehydroginkgolide B (imp-3) simultaneously in XQ-1 samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a CN band stationary phase, with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 20 mM dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (pH 7.5) (50: 50, v/v) in isocratic elution.

Average treatment and surveillance periods were 8 months (range,

Average treatment and surveillance periods were 8 months (range, 3-14 mo) and 23 months (range, SBC-115076 concentration 1-40 mo), respectively. Radiation exposure was estimated from the dose-length product (DLP) for CT scans and milli-Curies and DLP for PET/CT scans. Cancer risk was estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation model. Results: During their treatment period, 45 patients had 161 CT exams and 39 patients had 73 PET/CT exams. Mean effective dose was 39.3 mSv (range, 7.1-100 mSv). During the surveillance period, 60 patients had 378 CT exams and 25 patients had 39 PET/CT exams. Mean effective dose was 53.2 mSv (range, 2.6-154 mSv). Seventeen of 76 (22.4%) patients

had total cumulative

doses greater than 100 mSv. The mean increase in estimated cancer risk was 0.40%; the greatest estimated risk to any one patient was 1.19%. Conclusion: Mean total effective dose and mean estimated cancer risk were low in patients with lymphoma undergoing serial imaging, suggesting that theoretical risks of radiation-induced cancer need not be a major consideration in radiologic follow-up. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Traditionally, the promotional activities of medical industries have been product specific. In recent years, however, there have been examples where companies have worked through partnerships, which have included clinicians, to expand the PLX3397 in vitro boundaries of treatable disorders. The main motivation appears to be to increase sales of commercial products. The term ‘disease mongering’ has been applied to these activities. Whereas some disease awareness programmes may bring benefits in the form of improved recognition and management of disorders, the presence of strong commercial interests probably distorts the traditional processes by which treatable diseases have been defined. This can result in individual patients being exposed to potential harms, with little expectation of benefit and will place an unwarranted burden on the publicly funded health-care system. None of

this can happen CAL-101 ic50 without the collaboration of the medical profession that needs to be aware of the risks of becoming involved in commercially supported ‘consensus’ groups that are reviewing the definition and management of diseases.”
“Against 182 anaerobe and 241 aerobe strains obtained from diabetic foot infections, doripenem was the most active carbapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 2 mu g/ml), more active than imipenem against Proteus mirabilis, and ertapenem was more active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The MIC,, and MIC90 values were <= 0.125 mu g/ml for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and all streptococci and 0.25/1 for Bacteroides fragilis.

European authors in 2007 indicate that lavetiracetam, lamotrigine

European authors in 2007 indicate that lavetiracetam, lamotrigine and gabapentin were first line drugs, followed by topiramate and valproate in elderly patients. Oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine were not highly recommended because of the associated hyponatremia, cardiac disorders and interaction potentials. The standard antiepileptic drug for focal epilepsy is

still carbamazepine, and valproate is most commonly used for generalized epilepsy- even in older patients. Epidemiological studies on epilepsy treatment in the elderly show steady increase in the number of patients. Therefore, elderly patients require special attention. Monotherapy in low doses is often sufficient, enzyme inducing drug are used too frequently.”
“West selleck Nile virus

(WNV) is a flavivirus that causes neurological disorders in less than 1 % of infected subjects. Human cases of WNV-associated fever and/or neurological disorders have been reported in Italy since 2008. The first outbreak occurred in the northeastern region of Italy surrounding the Po River and was caused by the Po River lineage 1 strain, and since then, WNV infections have been reported in several regions of central Italy. Although the virus is highly genetically conserved, stochastic mutations in its genome may lead to the emergence of new strains, as was observed in Italy in 2011 with the identification of two
age 1 strains, the WNV Piave and WNV Livenza strains. To help further define WNV epidemiology in Italy, we describe a case of an Italian man living in the Po River area who developed Ferroptosis inhibitor fatal encephalitis in 2009 due to infection with the WNV Piave strain. This finding supports the notion that the Piave strain has been circulating

in this area of Italy for 2 years longer than was previously believed.”
“The tobacco-specific lung carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) forms DNA methylating and pyridyloxobutylating species. In this study, the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the repair of pyridyloxobutyl adducts https://www.selleckchem.com/products/apo866-fk866.html was assessed using an in vitro NER assay with pyridyloxobutylated plasmid DNA. Nuclear extracts from NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells, XPA and XPC, were less active at repairing pyridyloxobutyl adducts than were extracts from normal cells, while combining NER-deficient extracts reconstituted activity. Also, NER-deficient cells were more susceptible to NNKOAc-induced cytotoxicity than were normal cells. Results demonstrate a role for NER in the repair of NNK-induced pyridyloxobutylation. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“At the early stage of drug discovery, thousands of new chemical entities (NCEs) may be screened before a single candidate can be identified for development.

“Sequence analysis of hrp loci and effector genes in the f

“Sequence analysis of hrp loci and effector genes in the flanking regions showed significantly high similarities between two phylotype I strains of selleck products Ralstonia solanacearum, GMI1000 and Japanese strain OE1-1. Further sequence analysis of the distribution of avrA and popP1, known as determinants of a hypersensitive response (HR) induction on Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), in 22 Japanese phylotype I strains revealed that all strains had one of the two distinct avrA alleles and that 10 strains had an identical popP1 but the other 12 did not. After

infiltration of tobacco leaves, more than half of these 22 strains elicited HR. In combination with the ability to induce HR, avrA and popP1 are thus not likely to be the sole determinants of HR in Japanese phylotype I strains.”
“Measuring the effect of anthropogenic change on cetacean populations is hampered by our lack of understanding about population status and a lack of power in the available data to detect trends in abundance. Often long-term data from repeated surveys are lacking, and alternative approaches to trend detection must be considered. We utilised an existing database of line-transect survey records to determine whether temporal trends could be detected when survey effort

from around the world was combined. We extracted density estimates for 25 species and fitted generalised additive models (GAMs) to investigate whether taxonomic, spatial or methodological differences among systematic line-transect surveys affect estimates of density and whether we Apoptosis Compound Library chemical structure can identify temporal trends in the data once these factors are accounted for. The selected GAM consisted of 2 parts: an intercept term that was a complex interaction of taxonomic, spatial and methodological factors and a smooth

temporal term with trends varying by family and ocean basin. We discuss the trends found and assess the suitability of published density estimates for detecting temporal trends using retrospective power analysis. In conclusion, GDC 973 increasing sample size through combining survey effort across a global scale does not necessarily result in sufficient power to detect trends because of the extent of variability across surveys, species and oceans. Instead, results from repeated dedicated surveys designed specifically for the species and geographical region of interest should be used to inform conservation and management.”
“Vanilloid receptor (VR1) is expressed in the central nervous system as well as in various non-neuronal cells (mast cells, keratinocytes and epithelial cells). The VR1 expression in rat ovaries according to the sexual development period was investigated in the present study by immunohistochemistry.