The chemiluminescent signal detected with a cooled CCD camera (Pi

The chemiluminescent signal detected with a cooled CCD camera (Pierce, USA) was analyzed with ArrayVision 8.0 software (Imaging Research, USA). The sensitivity limit for each molecule was: CCL1 (0.8 pg/mL), CCL2 (0.8 pg/mL), CCL3 (3.1 pg/mL), CCL4 (0.8 pg/mL), CCL5 (0.4 pg/mL), CCL11 (0.5 pg/mL), CCL17 (0.4 pg/mL), CCL22 (0.2 pg/mL) and CXCL8 (0.2 pg/mL)

as provided by the manufacturer. For LMD-samples, all values below the limit of detection were assigned with the corresponding limit value. We strictly followed the manufacturer’s instructions and conducted selleck products the assay in a blinded manner. LMD and plasma samples (with exception of temporal profiles) were assayed twice and the mean value of both measurements was given. For LMD-cell Selleck AZD6244 samples the resulting

chemokine protein concentration was finally corrected by the total protein content and values are given as pg/mg. Plasma results were expressed as pg/mL. Whole analysis was performed with SPSS 15.0 software (SPSS Inc., USA). Shapiro–Wilk test was used to define normally distributed variables (p > 0.05), due to small sample sizes. Normal distribution was analyzed by Students’ t test or ANOVA and mean and SD values were given. Different time points of temporal profiles were compared by ANOVA of repeated measures and paired-t test, while correlations with other continuous variables Quinapyramine were assessed by Pearson test. Non-normal distribution was assessed by Mann–Whitney U or Kruskal–Wallis

tests and median and interquartile range (IQR) were reported. We compared temporal profiles by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, and analyzed correlations by Spearman test. Pearson chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. In all cases, a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant at a 95% confidence level. For sample size and statistical power calculation we compared medians by using Ene 3.0 free software (GlaxoSmithKline S.A., Spain; Of the nine chemokines assayed, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL17 were not detected in LMD-cell samples. Among the remaining six chemokines, CCL1 and CCL2 were found at higher levels in neurons than in blood vessels (p = 0.021 in both cases) only in healthy contralateral area. Interestingly, CCL5 and CCL22 were decreased within the vessels and neurons, respectively, when the contralateral region of the brain was compared to the infarcted tissue (both cases with a p = 0.043) ( Fig. 1). All the nine chemokines were detected in plasma samples of ischemic stroke patients and, as shown in Supplementary Table 2, no differences regarding demographic and clinical data were found between both studied cohorts.

However, for T=2 75 s, the kinetic energy is lower than that reco

High energy flow is observed as the wave period increases from 2 s to 2.5 s. However, for T=2.75 s, the kinetic energy is lower than that recorded for the wave period of 2.5 s. As for T=3 s, it recorded the highest velocity. The effect of wave period on the wave height for constant movement of the wave-maker plate is shown in Fig. 10. The wave height was monitored in the middle of the NWT. The wave height was calculated from the data just before when the wave had traveled to the back wall. This duration was chosen to avoid the reflected waves from affecting the result. Period corresponding to 2.5 s recorded the maximum wave height of 0.225 m and afterwards there

is a significant drop in the wave height at lower wave periods. This result gives an important insight

that maximum wave height is possible at a particular period by fixing other parameters. LY2109761 For the current study, the water depth and the wave-maker plate movement were kept constant. Similar observations were made by Lal and Elangovan (2008). There is an increase in the wave height as the period decreases from 3 s to 2.5 s. From 2.5 s to 2 s the wave height decreases significantly. This decrease in the wave height is because at intermediate depths, there is a transitional behavior of the wave velocity. If the water is very shallow (d≈λ/7), the velocity of Selleck GSK126 the crest of the wave is too fast compared to that of the trough and the wave breaks ( Rosa, 2005). The velocity vectors at the same instants when the water is flowing in the front guide nozzle are shown in Fig. 11. It is clear from Fig. 11 that higher velocity is recorded for higher wave period. At T=3 s the flow

has more energy when compared to T=2 s and T=2.5 s and this is quantified in Fig. 12. Fig. 12 shows the average velocities recorded at section 1 to section 3 in the front guide nozzle in the XY plane at z=0 for the wave periods of 2 s, 2.5 s and 3 s. The averaging was done over 10 s period Interleukin-3 receptor from 20 s to 30 s. This range was chosen because the water oscillation in the rear chamber and the head loss across the turbine stabilizes after time of 20 s. Taking average for 10 s ensures that the result captures the changing flow direction eight times. This provides good estimate of the average conditions. The point on the lower wall is denoted as y/Hoi=0 while that on the upper wall as y/Hoi=1. The cross sectional height at section i that is at sections 1–3 is represented by Hoi. The turbine was not included in the computational domain. The reason for this was to study the flow pattern without turbine first because of the flow complexities that arise when turbine is included and this makes the analysis difficult. It was important to study the flow in the front guide nozzle because its performance significantly affects the performance of the turbine.

The age group in the sample is a consequence of German curriculum

The age group in the sample is a consequence of German curriculum standards, according to which the topic ‘electrical energy’ is supposed to be taught in grades 10 of German secondary schools. Before treatment, measures of non-verbal – especially logical – intelligence and reading comprehension as well as a pre-test of motivation (MOT1-PRE) were obtained. In the following three weeks of instruction, the two groups worked on different worksheets containing problems about ‘electrical energy’ (two physics lessons

PD332991 per week in each group). Problem content, quantity (12 problems per group) and difficulty in the two conditions were identical. After the last worksheet, the students completed a motivation test (MOT2-POST), which was followed by an achievement test. Seven weeks after finishing the following topic, a follow-up motivation test (MOT3-FUP) was conducted to study the long term effect of the treatment6. All these measures

were obtained by published and standardized instruments, with the exception of the achievement test based on topic related, curriculary valid questions (see section “Materials and Instruments”). The achievement test was also used for grading, in order to keep study related reductions of available teaching time low. The study design is presented Cabozantinib in Table 2. Worksheets included tasks for practice and knowledge transfer in the pertinent subject matter (energy). Each Worksheet consisted of four tasks with different sub-tasks. The first worksheet dealt with the topics “Electrical Energy”. “Electrical Power”, “Energy Costs” and with the calculation of these quantities. While the second worksheet calculated the possibilities and

limitations of wind energy and atomic energy, the last sheet focused on the discussion of different kinds of energy saving. In all, students worked on 12 tasks during treatment. The degree of difficulty corresponded to the degree of difficulty of the achievement test. Students worked on the worksheets in groups of two or three. Content and difficulty of the worksheet tasks in the two groups were identical, the NSP in the TG differed only in the presentation format of the basis text from the tasks in the CG (language style, layout, see Fig. 1). Finally, the curricular validity of the work sheets was established within the Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase above-mentioned physics education cooperation network; only worksheets with satisfying interrater agreement (as measured by Cohen׳s Kappa (κC; Cohen, 1960 and Landis and Koch, 1977) were retained (κC=0.74–0.91; Kuhn, 2010). For the learning and assessment problems, see the corresponding section below. Repeated measures of motivation were conducted with an instrument well established in the in the literature on science motivation (adapted from Hoffmann et al., 1997; total Cronbach׳s α=0.89) with the following subscales: intrinsic motivation (IM; twelve items; Cronbach׳s α=0.74), classroom climate (CC; ten items; Cronbach׳s α=0.75) and self-concept (SC; seven items; Cronbach׳s α=0.

Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone

Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA (miRNA) expression, can change genome function under exogenous influence, such as environmental pollutants. Epigenetic changes may mediate

specific mechanisms of toxicity and responses to certain chemicals. Furthermore such modifications might persist Epigenetics inhibitor even in the absence of the factors that established them (Anway et al., 2006 and Dolinoy, 2008). Here, we review current evidence indicating that epigenetic alterations mediate toxicity from pesticides (Table 1). Pesticides are chemicals used to control noxious or unwanted living species (Baxter et al., 2010). Therefore, they find use in agriculture, in public health for controlling vector borne diseases, in industry to protect machineries and products from biological degradation and in “do

it yourself” activities, such as gardening. Pesticides can be classified based on their chemical structure (for example, carbamates, organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids), their target (for example, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides and acaricides), their mode of action (for example, acetylcholinesterase GW-572016 molecular weight inhibitors, calcium channels inhibitors). Further classification of pesticides is based on their toxicity: for example, the classes of toxicity defined by the Word Health Organization, based on the LD50 levels and the International

Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification based on evidences PLEK2 of carcinogenicity. Pesticides exposure may cause acute and delayed health effects, ranging from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to general malaise and chronic and long term severe effects on the nervous system including mild cognitive dysfunction (e.g. mood changes, neurobehavioral alterations), cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction, minor psychiatric morbidity, depression and death from mental disorders, neurodegenerative (e.g. Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) and neurodevelopmental effects (Kanthasamy et al., 2012, Kwok, 2010, Migliore and Coppede, 2009 and Sanborn et al., 2007). Reproductive functions can also be affected, with birth defects, impaired fecundability, infertility and altered growth (Jurewicz and Hanke, 2008 and Sanborn et al., 2007). Although hundreds of papers on pesticides and cancer have been published so far (Ferri et al., 2007, Johnson et al., 1990, Keller-Byrne et al., 1995, Keller-Byrne et al., 1997, Khuder et al., 1998, Turner et al., 2010, Van Maele-Fabry and Willems, 2003 and Vinson et al., 2011), to date the results of epidemiological studies have been inconsistent (Alavanja et al., 2004). As for agricultural workers, supposed to be more exposed to pesticides than other workers subgroups, current evidence is of a cancer risk lower than expected (Blair et al.

Several studies in rodent osteoblastic cell lines and bone marrow

Several studies in rodent osteoblastic cell lines and bone marrow progenitor cells demonstrated that pharmacological see more AMPK activators metformin and AICAR (acadesine) induce differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts

by upregulating the expression of Runx2 [25], [26], [27] and [28]. Moreover, the in vivo studies confirmed that metformin stimulates bone lesion regeneration in rats [29], while AMPK gene knockdown reduces bone mass in mice [30] and [31]. Recently, Kim et al. [15], using an RNA interference approach, provided the first evidence for the involvement of AMPK in osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived MSC. The results of the present study confirm and expand these findings by demonstrating the induction of autophagy and activation

of Akt as the major early and late downstream events, respectively, in AMPK-controlled MSC osteogenic differentiation. While it has been reported that Akt is required for BMP2-stimulated osteogenesis DAPT molecular weight in mice [14] and [32], our data for the first time demonstrate the involvement of autophagy in osteoblast differentiation. The role of AMPK in autophagy induction or Akt activation in osteoblasts has not been assessed thus far, but the present results are consistent with the ability of AMPK to induce autophagy in various cell types [33], as well as to activate Akt in leukemic cells, endothelial cells and renal tubular cells [34], [35] and [36]. The latter effect, however, seems to be cell type- and/or context-dependent, as we have previously failed to observe any influence of AMPK on Akt phosphorylation in U251 human glioma cells exposed to simvastatin or compound C [37] and [38], or in metformin-treated B16 mouse melanoma cell line [39]. While our data with AMPK shRNA clearly support the role of AMPK in Akt activation during osteogenic differentiation of hDP-MSC, it should be noted that the AMPK inhibitor compound C [40] has recently been reported to directly interfere with Akt phosphorylation in an AMPK-independent manner [38]. Therefore, although we used compound C at

quite a low dose (1 μM) as a precaution against non-specific effects, the possibility Resveratrol that its actions in the present study were partly mediated independently of AMPK inhibition could not be completely excluded. However, compound C, unlike Akt inhibitor DEBC, failed to reduce osteogenic differentiation of hDP-MSC if added 3 days after its initiation, which argues against the ability of compound C to directly inhibit Akt in our experimental setting. In addition, it has been shown that AMPK can modulate differentiation of rodent osteoblast cell lines through interference with Wnt/β-catenin and Smad1/5/8-Dlx5 signaling pathways [26] and [41]. We are currently investigating possible connections between these signaling pathways and AMPK-triggered activation of autophagy and Akt during osteoblast differentiation of human MSC.

This, in correlation with an increase in Mepe expression seen, wo

This, in correlation with an increase in Mepe expression seen, would allow the release of ASARM peptides therefore further increasing the inhibition of mineralization. Furthermore, the reduction in Phex mRNA expression

may be due to the ASARM peptide protecting itself from sequestration and hydrolysis by PHEX, as has previously been suggested [14], [18] and [66]. A decrease in Phex mRNA DNA Damage inhibitor has also been observed in osteoblast cell cultures treated with the pASARM peptide, concomitant with an increase in FGF23 expression  [14]. In the MEPE-overexpressing mouse, however, an increase in Phex mRNA is observed and this, coupled with the expected hydrolysis of the ASARM peptide, leads to altered MEPE processing and therefore the hyperphosphatemia observed in this mouse Cyclopamine concentration model [13]. These data are also in agreement with previous reports showing increased MEPE expression by osteoblasts of HYP mice and this positive regulation of MEPE expression

by pASARM may exacerbate the condition  [4], [10], [15] and [66]. It is reasonable to speculate that physiologically there must be a regulatory mechanism to ensure that there is not an overproduction of ASARM peptides and as such a pathological state. The precise nature of the counter balancing mechanism is presently unknown but as the SIBLING proteins are closely related and it is possible that one of the other members of this family may be responsible. Key to endochondral ossification is the vascularization of the mineralized matrix [39]. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) proteolytically degrade the mineralized cartilage RG7420 mw matrix, facilitating blood vessel penetration into the growth plate and allowing the recruitment of osteoclast precursors and osteoblast progenitors. Pro-angiogenic VEGF is produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate and VEGF164/188 deletion from the cartilage of

developing mice results in delayed recruitment of blood vessels to the perichondrium along with a delayed invasion of vessels into the primary ossification centre [67]. Here we have shown that the pASARM peptide reduces the levels of endothelial cells present during metatarsal organ culture due to the vessel invasion of the bones at approximately E14– E15. This was associated with reduced VEGF120/164 mRNA expression levels. It is entirely possible that the influence of the pASARM peptide on endothelial cell populations is indirect, by impacting hypertrophic chondrocyte VEGF expression. However, any direct effects of the pASARM peptide on endothelial cell function remain uninvestigated.

This was not the case in eggs with active J2, where delay in hatc

This was not the case in eggs with active J2, where delay in hatching was observed, possibly related to the check details release of P. luminescens by H. baujardi LPP7 and to the concentration of metabolites in the medium. Based on these results, application of IJs to the soil would be very helpful in conjunction with a substance that would change the eggs permeability. More studies need to be carried out in this aspect. “
“Freshwater molluscs are relatively common in Amazonian rivers with clear and turbid waters (Haas, 1949). Among the bivalves, Diplodon suavidicus (Lea, 1856) has a wide distribution across the Amazon basin ( Bonetto, 1967, Haas, 1932, Haas, 1969, Mansur and Valer, 1992 and Pimpão and Mansur, 2009). Although there is a wide distribution

of molluscs in Brazil, there are few records of Nematodas using these organisms as hosts ( Thiengo et al., 2000). The genus Hysterothylacium Ward GSK2118436 chemical structure and Margath (1917) belongs to the Anisakidae family, and it is frequently mistaken with the Contracaecum genus. While Contracaecum possesses an excretory pore next to the ventral interlabium, in Hysterothylacium this pore is located on the nerve ring region. According to Luque et al. (2007) adult Hysterothylacium are

found parasitizing fish. The larvae can be found in marine and freshwater fish as well as some invertebrates that, in this case, act as intermediate hosts. To date, there is no record of Hysterothylacium larvae parasitizing molluscs in Brazil. In the present work, it is documented the occurrence of Hysterothylacium larvae in the pericardic cavity of Diplodon suavidicus specimens from Aripuanã River, tributary of the Madeira River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Individuals

of D. suavidicus were manually collected from the Aripuanã river, an affluent on the right hand side margin of the Madeira river (between 05°58′23.4″S 60°12′37.4″W and 06°08′55.8″S 60°11′44.3″W). The collection was made during the dry season, between the 5th and 8th September, 2007. Part of the specimens was maintained for 24 h in bottles with water Calpain from the collection site and pure menthol crystals (C10H20O) for the relaxation of soft parts. Subsequently, all samples were fixed in 70% alcohol. In the laboratory, the bivalves had their shells removed, allowing the visualization of the nematodes. They were removed with tweezers through a small cut on the mantle of the host, above the pericardic cavity. The number of parasites per host was recorded and all nematodes were fixed in 70% alcohol. The specimens were then analysed by light microscopy, where they were cleared and kept in lactic acid during the entire procedure. A drawing tube was attached to a light microscope in order to aid with the drawings. Measurements are given in millimeters (mm), followed by the mean and the range in parentheses. Bivalves and nematodes were deposited in the collection at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, INPA), Manaus, Brazil.

6 These results suggest that passive smoking did

6 These results suggest that passive smoking did Lenvatinib in vitro not compromise body weight gain

nor did it cause malnutrition in the animals. However, it should be emphasized that animals of the exposed group consumed larger amounts of fluid and food, a finding indicating alterations in the processes of food absorption. More detailed studies are necessary to investigate the association between food absorption and cigarette smoke. The submandibular glands of exposed animals were characterized by alterations in acinar cells. An inflammatory infiltrate was also detected. The extracellular matrix was found to be enlarged, with the observation of a higher density of type I collagen fibres, followed by an increase in types III and II collagen fibres. In the parotid glands, alterations in secretory cells were also observed, as well as an increased accumulation of stromal connective tissue. The density of type I collagen fibres in the extracellular matrix was higher in these glands, whereas there were no significant differences in the density of type II fibres between the groups studied. In contrast, the density of type III collagen was reduced when compared to healthy animals. The salivary glands produce peroxidase, an enzyme that protects against PF-562271 purchase toxic agents, including carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds.37 and 38 However, glandular hypofunction

can expose tissues to these agents and cause morphological alterations, including malignant transformation.39, 40, 41, 42, 43 and 44 In this

respect, studies have shown the effects of cigarette components on the oral cavity and have associated this action with various tissue lesions.9, 10 and 14 Eliakim and Karmeli observed inflammatory processes in the digestive tract after chronic and systemic treatment with nicotine.45 Reactive oxygen species might be associated with these inflammatory processes and their excessive production may lead to oxidative stress and tissue injury.46 Fenbendazole A relationship between these cellular alterations and passive smoking has also been demonstrated. Ward et al. observed damage to the ocular epithelium after exposure of patients to cigarette smoke.47 Exposure to cigarette smoke was also found to increase left ventricular wall thickness in rats, characterizing cardiac dysfunction according to the authors.48 Similarly, immune response alterations were observed in mice,49 indicating that passive smoking may compromise the function of different organ systems. In addition to the study of the toxic agents present in cigarettes, several investigators have emphasized the importance of the epithelial structure as a barrier against these aggressors.6 and 50 However, the importance of connective tissue has also been recognized.51 and 52 Salivary gland connective tissue mainly consists of regularly arranged type I collagen that supports the secretory tissue.

(2008) and AMCG, Imperial College London (2014) The Storegga sli

(2008) and AMCG, Imperial College London (2014). The Storegga slide was a large submarine slide which disintegrated during movement (Haflidason et al., 2005), such that it was not a single rigid block. Moreover, there is evidence that slope failure started in deep water and moved retrogressively upslope (Masson et al., 2010). However, as such complex DAPT slide dynamics would add considerable computational expense, here we adopt a simplified slide movement formulation described by Harbitz (1992) and Løvholt et al. (2005). The slide is a rigid block that has a prescribed shape

and moves using a prescribed velocity function. Despite its simplicity, Storegga-tsunami simulations using this approach produced run-up height estimates in reasonable agreement with those inferred from sediment deposits at a range of locations (Bondevik et al., 2005). The total water displacement is determined by the changes in aggregated thickness as the slide moves with a prescribed velocity. We impose this water displacement as a normal velocity Dirichlet boundary condition, (u·n)Du·nD, calculated as: equation(2) u·nD=-hs(x-xs(t-Δt),y-ys(t-Δt))-hs(x-xs(t),y-ys(t))Δtwhere ΔtΔt is the timestep of the model, and n is the outward unit normal. The slide motion is defined as: equation(3) h(x,y,t)=hs(x-xs(t),y-ys(t)),h(x,y,t)=hs(x-xs(t),y-ys(t)),where h(x,y,t)h(x,y,t) is the slide thickness in two-dimensional

Cartesian space (x,y)(x,y) at time, t  , and hshs is the vertical displacement (with respect to the boundary) of water by the slide. The parameters xsxs and ysys describe the slide motion and hshs describes the slide shape via simple

geometric relationships: equation(4) xs=x0+s(t)cosϕys=y0+s(t)sinϕ0mafosfamide Here, ϕϕ is the angle from the x  -axis that the slide travels in, (x0,y0)(x0,y0) is the initial position of the centre of the slide front, R   is the run-out distance, and, T   is the total time of the slide travel, defined as: equation(5) T=Ta+Tc+Td,T=Ta+Tc+Td,where TaTa is the acceleration phase of the slide, TcTc is the constant speed phase, and TdTd is the deceleration phase. The acceleration time Ta=πRa/2UmTa=πRa/2Um (acceleration distance RaRa), the constant speed time Tc=Rc/UmTc=Rc/Um (constant speed distance RcRc), and the deceleration time Td=πRd/2UmTd=πRd/2Um (deceleration distance RdRd), define the relationship between travel time, maximum speed, and run-out distance for the three phases. The total run-out distance of the slide is R=Ra+Rc+RdR=Ra+Rc+Rd. The term s(t)s(t) in (4) governs the acceleration and deceleration phases, given a maximum slide velocity UmaxUmax, and is defined as Acceleration phase: equation(6) s(t)=Ra1-cosUmaxRat,0

Lynn (2002) reviewed the literature on psychopathy in childhood a

Lynn (2002) reviewed the literature on psychopathy in childhood and adolescence and

found that Blacks averaged the highest rates including diagnosis with childhood conduct disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Staurosporine datasheet (ADHD), being suspended or excluded from school, scoring low on tests of moral understanding, failing to live up to financial obligations such as paying back student loans, poor work commitment, recklessness (e.g., having traffic accidents), maintaining monogamous relationships, being responsible parents, engaging in domestic violence, and needing hospitalization for injuries sustained through altercations. Rushton and Whitney (2002) analyzed the 1993–1996 INTERPOL Yearbooks and found that across 100 countries, the rate of murder, rape, and serious assault is four times higher in African and Caribbean countries than elsewhere

in the world. In violent crimes per 100,000 people, the rate for African countries was 149; for European, 42; and for Asian, 35. These results are similar to those carried out on other data sets from INTEROL and the United Nations. They show the Black overrepresentation in violent crime to be a worldwide phenomenon. In regard to sexual behavior, differences between Blacks and Whites also support the pigmentation hypothesis. In an early international survey, Ford and Beach (1951) asked married couples how often they had sex each week. Pacific Islanders and Native

Americans said from Dasatinib mouse 1 to 4 times, US Whites answered 2–4 times, while Africans Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase said 3 to over 10 times. Later surveys confirmed and extended these findings. Rushton and Bogaert, 1987 and Rushton and Bogaert, 1988 examined 41 items from the Kinsey data and found that Blacks not only had a higher rate of intercourse at an earlier age and with more partners, but also had more orgasms per act of coitus, spent more time thinking about sex, and had lower levels of sex guilt. Black females became pregnant more quickly indicated by speed of pregnancy after demobilization. Race predicted sexual behavior better than did socioeconomic status. Kinsey’s Black sample was college educated (from 1938 to 1963) and came from a middle class background (parentally intact, with high educational level) while one of the White samples was non-college educated and were lower on the same parental indices. Mixed-race (Black–White) adolescents reported an intermediate number of sexual partners compared to the two parental populations, even after controlling for socio-economic status (Rowe, 2002). The World Health Organization found the average intercourse per week for married couples in their twenties was, for American Blacks, 5; for American Whites, 4; and for the Japanese and Chinese in Asia, 2.5 (see Rushton, 2000, for a review of these studies). National surveys from Britain and the United States produce similar findings.