This was not the case in eggs with active J2, where delay in hatc

This was not the case in eggs with active J2, where delay in hatching was observed, possibly related to the check details release of P. luminescens by H. baujardi LPP7 and to the concentration of metabolites in the medium. Based on these results, application of IJs to the soil would be very helpful in conjunction with a substance that would change the eggs permeability. More studies need to be carried out in this aspect. “
“Freshwater molluscs are relatively common in Amazonian rivers with clear and turbid waters (Haas, 1949). Among the bivalves, Diplodon suavidicus (Lea, 1856) has a wide distribution across the Amazon basin ( Bonetto, 1967, Haas, 1932, Haas, 1969, Mansur and Valer, 1992 and Pimpão and Mansur, 2009). Although there is a wide distribution

of molluscs in Brazil, there are few records of Nematodas using these organisms as hosts ( Thiengo et al., 2000). The genus Hysterothylacium Ward GSK2118436 chemical structure and Margath (1917) belongs to the Anisakidae family, and it is frequently mistaken with the Contracaecum genus. While Contracaecum possesses an excretory pore next to the ventral interlabium, in Hysterothylacium this pore is located on the nerve ring region. According to Luque et al. (2007) adult Hysterothylacium are

found parasitizing fish. The larvae can be found in marine and freshwater fish as well as some invertebrates that, in this case, act as intermediate hosts. To date, there is no record of Hysterothylacium larvae parasitizing molluscs in Brazil. In the present work, it is documented the occurrence of Hysterothylacium larvae in the pericardic cavity of Diplodon suavidicus specimens from Aripuanã River, tributary of the Madeira River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Individuals

of D. suavidicus were manually collected from the Aripuanã river, an affluent on the right hand side margin of the Madeira river (between 05°58′23.4″S 60°12′37.4″W and 06°08′55.8″S 60°11′44.3″W). The collection was made during the dry season, between the 5th and 8th September, 2007. Part of the specimens was maintained for 24 h in bottles with water Calpain from the collection site and pure menthol crystals (C10H20O) for the relaxation of soft parts. Subsequently, all samples were fixed in 70% alcohol. In the laboratory, the bivalves had their shells removed, allowing the visualization of the nematodes. They were removed with tweezers through a small cut on the mantle of the host, above the pericardic cavity. The number of parasites per host was recorded and all nematodes were fixed in 70% alcohol. The specimens were then analysed by light microscopy, where they were cleared and kept in lactic acid during the entire procedure. A drawing tube was attached to a light microscope in order to aid with the drawings. Measurements are given in millimeters (mm), followed by the mean and the range in parentheses. Bivalves and nematodes were deposited in the collection at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, INPA), Manaus, Brazil.

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