(2008) and AMCG, Imperial College London (2014) The Storegga sli

(2008) and AMCG, Imperial College London (2014). The Storegga slide was a large submarine slide which disintegrated during movement (Haflidason et al., 2005), such that it was not a single rigid block. Moreover, there is evidence that slope failure started in deep water and moved retrogressively upslope (Masson et al., 2010). However, as such complex DAPT slide dynamics would add considerable computational expense, here we adopt a simplified slide movement formulation described by Harbitz (1992) and Løvholt et al. (2005). The slide is a rigid block that has a prescribed shape

and moves using a prescribed velocity function. Despite its simplicity, Storegga-tsunami simulations using this approach produced run-up height estimates in reasonable agreement with those inferred from sediment deposits at a range of locations (Bondevik et al., 2005). The total water displacement is determined by the changes in aggregated thickness as the slide moves with a prescribed velocity. We impose this water displacement as a normal velocity Dirichlet boundary condition, (u·n)Du·nD, calculated as: equation(2) u·nD=-hs(x-xs(t-Δt),y-ys(t-Δt))-hs(x-xs(t),y-ys(t))Δtwhere ΔtΔt is the timestep of the model, and n is the outward unit normal. The slide motion is defined as: equation(3) h(x,y,t)=hs(x-xs(t),y-ys(t)),h(x,y,t)=hs(x-xs(t),y-ys(t)),where www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-809.html h(x,y,t)h(x,y,t) is the slide thickness in two-dimensional

Cartesian space (x,y)(x,y) at time, t  , and hshs is the vertical displacement (with respect to the boundary) of water by the slide. The parameters xsxs and ysys describe the slide motion and hshs describes the slide shape via simple

geometric relationships: equation(4) xs=x0+s(t)cosϕys=y0+s(t)sinϕ0mafosfamide Here, ϕϕ is the angle from the x  -axis that the slide travels in, (x0,y0)(x0,y0) is the initial position of the centre of the slide front, R   is the run-out distance, and, T   is the total time of the slide travel, defined as: equation(5) T=Ta+Tc+Td,T=Ta+Tc+Td,where TaTa is the acceleration phase of the slide, TcTc is the constant speed phase, and TdTd is the deceleration phase. The acceleration time Ta=πRa/2UmTa=πRa/2Um (acceleration distance RaRa), the constant speed time Tc=Rc/UmTc=Rc/Um (constant speed distance RcRc), and the deceleration time Td=πRd/2UmTd=πRd/2Um (deceleration distance RdRd), define the relationship between travel time, maximum speed, and run-out distance for the three phases. The total run-out distance of the slide is R=Ra+Rc+RdR=Ra+Rc+Rd. The term s(t)s(t) in (4) governs the acceleration and deceleration phases, given a maximum slide velocity UmaxUmax, and is defined as Acceleration phase: equation(6) s(t)=Ra1-cosUmaxRat,0

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