1-2 mm at both sites) and did not measurably change between the t

1-2 mm at both sites) and did not measurably change between the two sampling seasons. In contrast, at the 1850-m site, O(2) penetration decreased after the monsoon (18-12 mm). Calculated late-to-postmonsoon O(2) consumption rates were generally similar to or lower than intermonsoon values (0 vs. 2.22 mmol m(-2) d(-1) at 140 m, 0.37 vs. 0.31 mmol m(-2) d(-1) at 1200 m, and 0.73 vs. 1.01 mmol m(-2) d(-1) at 1850 m). The relatively small seasonal signal suggests that organic matter delivered during the monsoon period may have already been largely remineralized by the late-to-postmonsoon sampling period. Modelling of porewater O(2) profiles indicates that subsurface O(2) consumption associated

oxidation of reduced inorganic species makes a significant contribution to total O(2) consumption at some sites. Similarly, differences in O(2) consumption rates determined by porewater profile modelling and whole-core incubations at some sites indicate QNZ inhibitor significant contributions find protocol associated with bioturbation and bioirrigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Question: Can species compositional dissimilarity analyses be used to assess and improve the representation of biodiversity patterns in a priori ecological classifications?\n\nLocation: The case study examined the northern-half of the South-east Queensland Bioregion, eastern Australia.\n\nMethods: Site-based floristic presence-absence data were used to construct species

dissimilarity matrices (Kulczynski metric) for three levels of Queensland’s bioregional hierarchy-subregions (1:500 000 scale), land zones (1:250 000 scale) and regional ecosystems (1:100 000 scale). Within-and between-class dissimilarities were compiled for each level to elucidate species

compositional patterns. Randomized subsampling was used to determine the minimum site sampling intensity for each hierarchy level, and the effects of lumping and splitting illustrated for several classes.\n\nResults: Consistent dissimilarity estimates were obtained with five or more sites per regional ecosystem, 10 or more sites per land zone, and more than 15 sites per subregion. On average, subregions represented Stem Cell Compound Library datasheet 4% dissimilarity in floristic composition, land zones approximately 10%, and regional ecosystems over 19%. Splitting classes with a low dissimilarity increased dissimilarity levels closer to average, while merging ecologically similar classes with high dissimilarities reduced dissimilarity levels closer to average levels.\n\nConclusions: This approach demonstrates a robust and repeatable means of analysing species compositional dissimilarity, determining site sampling requirements for classifications and guiding decisions about ‘lumping’ or ‘splitting’ of classes. This will allow more informed decisions on selecting and improving classifications and map scales in an ecologically and statistically robust manner.”
“Background: Open appendectomy (OA) has traditionally been the treatment for acute appendicitis (AA).

Increasing mainstream contacts and same-gender friendships may pr

Increasing mainstream contacts and same-gender friendships may protect all homeless youth from STIs. Interventions

addressing homeless young women’s social networks may decrease selleck chemicals their gender-disparate STI risk. (C) 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Muscle strength greatly influences gait kinematics. The question was whether this association is similar in different diseases.\n\nMethods: Data from instrumented gait analysis of 716 patients were retrospectively assessed. The effect of muscle strength on gait deviations, namely the gait profile score (GPS) was evaluated by means of generalised least square models. This was executed for seven different patient groups. The groups were formed according to the type of disease: orthopaedic/neurologic, uni-/bilateral affection, and flaccid/spastic muscles.\n\nResults: Muscle strength had a negative effect on GPS values, which did not significantly differ amongst the different patient groups. However, an offset of the GPS regression line was found, which

was mostly dependent MK-2206 cost on the basic disease. Surprisingly, spastic patients, who have reduced strength and additionally spasticity in clinical examination, and flaccid neurologic patients showed the same offset. Patients with additional lack of trunk control (Tetraplegia) showed the largest offset.\n\nConclusion: Gait kinematics grossly depend on muscle strength. This was seen in patients with very different pathologies. Nevertheless, optimal correction of biomechanics and muscle strength may still not lead to a normal gait, especially in that of neurologic patients. The basic disease itself has an additional effect on gait deviations expressed as a GPS-offset GW-572016 molecular weight of the linear regression

line. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid -oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9-2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T.

Dipyridamole treatment (1 mg/kg; EC50=10 M) was associated with s

Dipyridamole treatment (1 mg/kg; EC50=10 M) was associated with significant increases in ALI survival time (277 vs. 395 min; P smaller than 0.05). Subsequent studies in gene-targeted mice for Ent1 or Ent2 revealed a find protocol selective phenotype in Ent2(-/-) mice, including attenuated pulmonary edema and improved gas exchange during ALI in conjunction with elevated adenosine levels in the bronchoalveolar fluid. Furthermore, studies in genetic models for adenosine receptors implicated the A(2B) adenosine receptor (Adora2b) in mediating ENT-dependent lung protection. Notably, dipyridamole-dependent attenuation of

lung inflammation was abolished in mice with alveolar epithelial Adora2b gene deletion. Our newly identified crosstalk pathway between ENT2 and alveolar epithelial Adora2b in lung protection during ALI opens possibilities for combined therapies targeted to this protein set.”
“Objective: Little is known about the associations of serum fatty acids with lipoprotein profile

and the underlying genetic and environmental etiology of these relationships. We aimed to analyze the phenotypic association Selleckchem Nepicastat of serum n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs) and saturated (SFAs) fatty acids (relative proportion to total fatty acids) with lipids and lipoproteins, and to quantify common genetic and environmental factors determining their covariation. Methods: Two cohorts of healthy Finnish twins were assessed in young adulthood. Data were available for 1269 individual twins including 561 complete pairs. Serum metabolites were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to decompose the phenotypic covariance between the pairs of traits into genetic and environmental components. Results: Among the strongest correlations

observed, serum total n-6 PUFAs and linoleic acid were inversely (max. r = -0.65) and MUFAs positively (max. r = 0.63) correlated with triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Akt inhibitor particle concentration, particularly with large VLDL (for n-6 PUFAs) and medium VLDL (for MUFAs). Genetic factors significantly contributed to their covariance with bivariate heritability estimates ranging from 44% to 56% for n-6 PUFAs and 58% to 66% for MUFAs. Genetic correlations with lipid traits were moderate to high (max. r(A) = -0.59 and 0.70 for n-6 PUFAs and MUFAs, respectively). Statistically significant, but substantially weaker phenotypic correlations of total n-3 PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and SFAs with lipoprotein profile were not decomposed into their genetic and environmental components. Conclusion: Shared genetic factors are important in explaining why higher concentrations of serum n-6 PUFAs and lower concentrations of serum MUFAs strongly associate with lower triglyceride and VLDL particle concentrations. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Insulin secretion is key for glucose homeostasis.

“Purpose: Bisphosphonates are drugs commonly


“Purpose: Bisphosphonates are drugs commonly

used to treat osteoporosis, hypercalcemia ofmalignancy, and bonemetastases. In somecases, its administrationhas been associated with osteonecrosis of the jaws. The management of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) has not been completely elucidated, and its treatment can vary fromno or limited surgery to more extensive surgery. The objective VX-661 of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical therapy for patients presenting with MRONJ. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted that evaluated all MRONJ cases resulting from bisphosphonate use and treated by surgery from 2006 to 2012. All patients underwent surgery under general anesthesia. Results: A total of 33 patients with 46 MRONJ sites were evaluated. Most of the patients were women, with an age range of 39 to 83 years (mean 65.6 +/- 10.6). Complete healing of the MRONJ region was observed in 40 of the 46 sites (87%), with partial improvement (symptom control and reduction of the exposed bone area) observed in 3 sites (6.5%), for a 93.5% clinical benefit rate. Of the remaining regions,

2 showed no significant changes, and 1 presented with a worse aspect compared with the patient’s preoperative condition. Such cases were located in the posterior mandible region. The number of applications and type of bisphosphonate did not Rabusertib influence the treatment response. Conclusion: NVP-HSP990 chemical structure The surgical approach to treating MRONJ showed a high rate of clinical control. Therefore, surgery should be considered as a therapy for some cases of this condition. (C) 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons”
“The aim of this study was to understand the survival and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) cultured on chitosan matrices in vivo in a

complete transection model of spinal cord injury. NSPCs were isolated from the subependyma of lateral ventricles of adult GFP transgenic rat forebrains. The GFP-positive neurospheres were seeded onto the inner lumen of chitosan tubes to generate multicellular sheets ex vivo. These bioengineered neurosphere tubes were implanted into a completely transected spinal cord and assessed after 5 weeks for survival and differentiation. The in vivo study showed excellent survival of NSPCs, as well as differentiation into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, host neurons were identified in the tissue bridge that formed within the chitosan tubes and bridged the transected cord stumps. The excellent in vivo survival of the NSPCs coupled with their differentiation and maintenance of host neurons in the regenerated tissue bridge demonstrates the promise of the chitosan tubes for stem cell delivery and tissue regeneration.

But, the therapeutic option for patients meeting the Milan criter

But, the therapeutic option for patients meeting the Milan criteria with preserved liver function is facing a dilemma. In this study, we examined the outcomes of surgical resection for HCC patients meeting the Milan criteria with preserved liver function and rationale of hepatic resection as the first treatment for HCC meeting the Milan Criteria.\n\nMethods: Between 1991 and 2006, 248 patients with HCC underwent hepatectomy in 1.58 primary HCC patients meeting Milan criteria (Group M) and in 90 patients beyond Milan criteria (Group N). Median age was 54.5 years in group M and 52.4 years in group N.\n\nResults:

The tumor size, mean survival months, E-S grade and vascular invasion rate were significantly different between the two groups. 67 patients in group M and 22 patients in group N had intrahepatic recurrence CAL-101 inhibitor after primary hepatectomy.

The cumulative 1, 3, and 5-year survival rates were 91.9%, 74.5%, and 60.5% in intrahepatic recurrence group M after primary hepatectomy and 100%, 96.0%, and 90.5% in repeated hepatic resection for recurrent treatment in group M, respectively.\n\nConclusion: Because of the high survival rate and long-term Survival after adequate treatment of recurrence, primary hepatectomy is considered a reasonable option as first-line treatment for HCC meeting Milan criteria with preserved liver function. (J Korean Surg Soc 2009;77:267-272)”
“Aim Understanding Selleckchem JIB 04 the factors underlying the successful establishment of invasive ant species is critical for developing quarantine strategies to prevent additional invasions as well as for determining how such species overcome the selective pressures in invaded areas. Although several studies have revealed differences in the social organization and population genetics of

invasive ants in their native and introduced ranges, few studies have considered the potential interactions between alternate social forms within newly-invaded areas simply because many invasive ants are characterized as polygyne or unicolonial.\n\nLocation Taoyuan and Chiayi County, Taiwan.\n\nMethods Both social forms (polygyne and monogyne) of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, occur in two separately invaded areas in Taiwan (Taoyuan and Chiayi). We CRT0066101 clinical trial employed intensive sampling methods and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assays to determine the distribution of these two social forms in both infested areas in Taiwan.\n\nResults The distribution of social forms differs dramatically between the two infested areas, consistent with different invasion histories regarding the original make-up of individuals comprising the initial founder group. The Taoyuan population likely was colonized initially by ants of both social forms, with the subsequent spread characterized by continuous outward movement of the two forms, particularly the monogyne form.

Eleven sweet pepper cultivars were evaluated for their susceptibi

Eleven sweet pepper cultivars were evaluated for their susceptibility to F. lactis, and although

all were Susceptible, the degree of susceptibility varied. Fusarium lactis was subsequently isolated and identified from infected sweet pepper fruits from greenhouses in Saskatchewan and Ontario in 2006 and 2007.”
“A loud noise was heard from the vicinity of the port wing landing gear during pushback of a Boeing 747-300 check details from the terminal at Sydney (Australia) airport. Inspection showed that one of the wing landing gear trunnion fork assemblies had failed. Detailed investigation revealed that the trunnion had failed by fatigue cracking. Deep machining grooves were found at the root of an internal radius that had not been shot-peened as required, and a chemical surface process during manufacture had resulted in shallow intergranular attack at the bottom of these grooves. It is probable that the critical cracking started from some of these grooves. In addition, the wall thickness at the failure location was significantly less than the minimum required in the drawings.\n\nSince the deep machining grooves, the lack of peening and the intergranular attack were all consequences of manufacturing, the fatigue cracking probably started shortly Selleck CBL0137 after the component entered service. This implies that fatigue cracking was present during all the trunnion

overhauls, but was not detected by non-destructive inspections during the overhauls. Quantitative fractography was used to produce a crack growth curve based on fracture surface markings thought to represent the overhaul timings. The crack growth curve suggested that the fatigue cracking was large enough to be detected by inspection during the last overhaul, if not the one before. However, it was probably not easy to detect the cracking. This investigation therefore highlights the difficulties that can be encountered when

inspection is the last (or only) line of defence against failure owing to unexpected manufacturing Smoothened Agonist order deficiencies. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. A study on acute low back pain (LBP) in consecutive working patients in a multicenter study in general practice. Objective. LBP costs are enormous in all countries. New guidelines are diffi cult to introduce. On the basis of a new, specially developed LBP scale, the aims were to predict the duration of sick leave (SL), and to examine if the guidelines concerning bed rest (BR) and referral to radiographical examination were followed. Summary of Background Data. Pain intensity and heavy work infl uence the course of SL. A fi nger-to-fl oor distance test assesses the mobility of the spine, and both the fi nger-to-fl oor distance test and the straight leg raising test (SLRT) can be used to predict the course of LBP. BR or waiting time for treatment or referral will prolong SL.

Despite this, traditional gender patterns regarding, for example,

Despite this, traditional gender patterns regarding, for example, responsibility

for household duties still remain. Women are on sick leave more often than men, and previous studies have indicated that an unequal split of household responsibilities and perceived gender inequality could be associated with negative health outcomes. Aims: The aim of the present study was to explore whether an unequal distribution of responsibilities in the home was related to various health related outcomes among women. Methods: A sample consisting of 837 women living in a relationship, and working AZD5363 price at least 50% of full time, responded to a questionnaire including information about division of responsibilities at home as well as various psychological and physiological health related outcomes. Results: The results showed that women living in relationships with perceived more unequal distribution of responsibility for house hold duties showed significantly higher levels of perceived stress, fatigue, physical/psychosomatic symptoms, and work

family conflict compared with women living in more equal relationships. They also had significantly increased odds for insufficient time for various forms of recovery, which may further contribute to an increased risk of poor health. Conclusions: Although an increasing employment rate among women is valuable for both society and individuals, it is important to work towards greater gender equality at home to maintain this development without it having a negative effect on women’s health and well-being.”
“Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world Rabusertib concentration including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate NVP-HSP990 the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against

gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis.

Gene duplication may provide a way for poxviruses and other DNA v

Gene duplication may provide a way for poxviruses and other DNA viruses with high-fidelity DNA polymerases to adjust rapidly to changes in the environment.”
“Background: Identifying plaque composition using ultrasound may aid in stratifying patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Calcification is an integral

part of plaque progression and may contribute to plaque vulnerability. We investigated the ability of calcified carotid plaques identified using carotid ultrasound to predict cardiovascular outcomes in older adults. Methods: Participants included 187 hypertensive and 187 normotensive adults undergoing a duplex scan to identify the presence of calcified carotid plaques. Hypertensive participants received either blood pressure treatment or placebo,

click here and all participants were followed for incident HDAC inhibitors cancer cardiovascular events and death for a maximum of 11 years. Results: The untreated hypertensive group was significantly associated with a higher time-to-any CVD event [relative risk (RR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03-4.35, P smaller than 0.0001] and mortality (RR 3.11, 95% CI 1.92-5.04, P smaller than 0.0001) when compared to the normotensive group. Participants with calcified carotid plaques had higher cardiovascular event rates (RR 6.22, 95% CI 1.97-19.6, P = 0.0018) and mortality (RR 6.30, 95% CI 1.55-25.7, P = 0.010) when compared to those without plaque. After controlling for age, S3I-201 male sex,

blood pressure status, glucose, and IMT, the presence of calcified carotid plaques remained predictive of CVD events (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.5-3.8, P = 0.0005) and mortality (RR 2.72, 95% CI 1.4-5.2, P = 0.0021). Conclusion: Calcified carotid plaques may predict mortality and cardiovascular outcomes independent of traditional CVD risk factors and may serve as an additional CVD risk assessment in the elderly.”
“Although most of the patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) can be cured by the current regimen of high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, the treatment causes high risks of later toxicities including secondary malignancies. Therefore, new rational strategies are needed for HL treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent due to its tumor selectivity and its lack of toxicity for normal cells. Unfortunately, many cancers remain resistant to TRAIL including HL. HL is characterized by enhanced expression of cellular caspase-8 (FLICE)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), which block receptor-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-8 and caspase-3, respectively. We have recently discovered the herbal compound Rocaglamide, which breaks TRAIL-resistance in acute T cell leukemia through inhibition of c-FLIP expression.

We aimed to review the existing knowledge about miRNA biogenesis

We aimed to review the existing knowledge about miRNA biogenesis and function and summarize the recent findings demonstrating their potential use as biomarkers in solid organ transplantation. Although they still need to be validated in larger this website patient cohorts, miRNAs are not far from being used in transplant clinical practice as usefulness biomarkers. Ongoing multi-center trials should help to further define the clinical utility of miRNA profiles

as biomarkers of allograft status and outcome. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, GDF9B) are oocyte-derived proteins essential for the growth and function of ovarian follicles. Moreover, ovine (o) GDF9 and oBW15 cooperate to increase both H-3-thymidine incorporation and a-inhibin production and to inhibit progesterone production by rat or ovine granulosa cells. Although the receptors through which these proteins act individually have been determined, the receptor(s) involved in mediating the cooperative effects of GDF9 Birinapant and BMP15 is (are) unknown. In this study, the effects of the extracellular domains

of the types I and II TGF beta receptors on H-3-thymidine incorporation by rat granulosa cells stimulated by oGDF9 and oBMP15 were investigated. Stimulation of H-3-thymidine incorporation was completely blocked by the BMP receptor II (BMPRII) extracellular domain but unaffected by any other type II or any type I receptor. These results suggest that the initial interaction of oGDF9 and oBMIP15 is with BMPRII and that a type I receptor is either recruited or already associated with BMPRII to mediate the cooperative effects of these growth factors.”
“Objective: To establish new biomarkers for accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) using a standardized serum peptidome profiling and compare the results with those from the tumor marker, CA 19-9.\n\nMethods: Serum samples from 102 patients

(55 with chronic pancreatitis and 47 with PC) and 56 healthy controls were collected and analyzed following a protocol that was rigorously designed to prevent preanalytical variation. Serum peptides were VX 770 extracted using immobilized copper ion chromatography on a robotic platform. Mass spectra were acquired by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry on an Autoflex II spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany). Statistical analysis was performed using the Clinprotools 2.2 software (Bruker Daltonics) and the SPSS 15.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, III).\n\nResults: Standardized peptidome profiling showed a median coefficient of variation of 11.6% calculated using all the extracted peptides and negligible influence of sex and age on peptidome profiles.

CD90(+) cells transplantation restored hematopoiesis in eight fur

CD90(+) cells transplantation restored hematopoiesis in eight further rats previously exposed to

lethal irradiation.\n\nConclusion. The first-entry contact with the hematopoietic microenvironment immediately readdresses the fate of transplanted HSCs, providing them with “the final destination stamp” to define their bone marrow homing. (C) 2010 ISEH – Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“The lack of efficient methods for concentrating viruses in water samples leads to underreporting of viral contamination in source water. A novel strategy for viral concentration was developed using the expression of target virus receptors on bacterial cells. Poliovirus type 1, the most studied enterovirus, was used as a surrogate for Thiazovivin inhibitor enteric viruses. The human poliovirus receptor (hPVR) gene was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli cells by using the ice nucleation protein (INP) gene. The hPVR gene was ligated to the 3′ end of the INP gene after the removal of the stop codon. The resulting open reading frame (ORF) was used for the projection of hPVR onto the outer membrane of E. coli. Gene expression was tested by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and dot blot

analyses, and virion capture ability was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The application of engineered E. coli cells for capturing viruses in 1-liter samples of source and drinking water resulted in 75 to 99% procedural recovery efficiency. Cell surface display of viral receptors on bacterial cells opens a new prospect for an efficient and inexpensive alternative tool for capturing and concentrating waterborne viruses in water samples.”
“Background: LY2090314 datasheet Mitochondrial membrane complexes (MMCs) are key mediators of cellular oxidative phosphorylation, and inhibiting them could lead to cell death. No published data are available on the relative

abundance of MMCs in different periampullary cancers. Therefore, we studied the expression profile of MMCs I, III, IV and V in periampullary cancers, reactive pancreatitis, selleck compound normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis.\n\nMethods: This was a retrospective study on tissue microarrays constructed from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 126 consecutive patients (cancer = 104, chronic pancreatitis = 22) undergoing pancreatic resections between June 2001 and June 2006. 78 specimens of chronic pancreatitis tissue were obtained adjacent to areas of cancer. Normal pancreatic tissue was obtained from the resection specimens in a total of 30 patients. Metastatic tumours in 61 regional lymph nodes from 61 patients were also studied.\n\nResults: MMCs I, III, IV and V were highly expressed (p < 0.05) in all primary periampullary cancers compared with metastatic lymph nodes and adjacent benign pancreas. MMCs III, IV and V were highly expressed in all cancers regardless of type compared with chronic pancreatitis (p < 0.05).