005) There were no statistically significant differences in BSCV

005). There were no statistically significant differences in BSCVA between the 3 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Spherical and coma aberrations were similar in eyes with an aspheric IOL and younger phakic eyes, although HOAs were higher in pseudophakic eyes. There were no differences between pseudophakic eyes and older phakic eyes in coma and HOA, although pseudophakic eyes had lower spherical aberration.”
“The coercivity mechanism of nanocomposite Sm-Co/Fe multilayer films was investigated. It was concluded that the magnetization reversal mechanism of Sm-Co/Fe multilayer films is dominated

mainly by domain wall pinning instead of nucleation. The addition of Cu layer Selleckchem CP 456773 between the hard and soft layers causes the change in grain boundary as well as the large variation in anisotropy in the hard layer after annealing, which leads to a strong increase in domain wall pinning, and therefore a significant improvement of the coercivity. This study indicates EPZ5676 manufacturer the potentials of this method to control and improve the magnetic property of nanocomposite multilayer films.”
“Background: Rapid deterioration of consciousness is a critical situation for patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).

Bispectral (BIS) index was derived from electroencephalography parameters, primarily to monitor the depth of unconsciousness.

Aim: To assess the usability of peritransplant BIS monitoring in patients with FHF.

Methods: A prospective study using peritransplant BIS C59 supplier monitoring was performed in 26 patients with FHF undergoing urgent liver transplantation (LT).

Results: Pre-transplant Child-Pugh score was 12.2 +/- 1.0; model for end-stage liver disease score was 32.4 +/- 4.4; Glasgow coma score (GCS) was 9.9 +/- 1.3; and BIS index was 44.0 +/- 6.7. Pre-transplant sedation significantly decreased BIS index. After LT, all patients

having endotracheal intubation recovered consciousness within one to three d and showed progressive increase in BIS index, which appeared slightly earlier and was more evident than the increase in derived GCS score. There was a significant correlation between BIS index and derived GCS scores (r(2) = 0.648). Timing of eye opening to voice was matched with BIS index of 66.3 +/- 10.4 and occurred 12.7 +/- 8.3 h after passing BIS index of 50.

Conclusion: These results suggest that BIS monitoring is a non-invasive, simple, easy-to-interpret method, which is useful in assessing peritransplant state of consciousness. BIS monitoring may therefore be a useful tool during peritransplant intensive care for patients with FHF showing hepatic encephalopathy.


“The cariostatic benefit from water fluoridation is indisp


“The cariostatic benefit from water fluoridation is indisputable, but the knowledge of possible adverse effects on bone and fracture risk due to fluoride exposure is ambiguous. The association between long-term (chronic) drinking water fluoride exposure and hip fracture (ICD-7-9: 820′ and ICD-10: S72.0-S72.2′) was assessed in Sweden using nationwide registers. All individuals https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sch-900776.html born in Sweden between January 1, 1900

and December 31, 1919, alive and living in their municipality of birth at the time of start of follow-up, were eligible for this study. Information on the study population (n = 473,277) was linked among the Swedish National In-Patient Register (IPR), the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the Register of Population and Population Changes. Estimated individual

drinking water fluoride exposure was stratified into 4 categories: very low, < 0.3 mg/L; low, 0.3 to 0.69 mg/L; medium, 0.7 to 1.49 mg/L; and high, 1.5 mg/L. Overall, we found no association between chronic fluoride exposure and the occurrence of hip fracture. The risk estimates did not change in analyses restricted to only low-trauma osteoporotic hip fractures. Chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not seem to have any important effects on the risk of hip fracture, in the investigated exposure range.”
“Psychological distress is common in terminally ill persons and can be a source of great suffering. Grief ALK inhibitor clinical trial is an adaptive, universal, and highly personalized response to the multiple losses that occur at the end of life. This response may be intense early on after a loss manifesting itself physically, emotionally, cognitively, behaviorally, and spiritually; however, the impact of grief on daily life generally decreases with

time. Although pharmacologic interventions are not warranted for uncomplicated grief, physicians are encouraged to support patients by acknowledging their grief and encouraging the open expression of emotions. It is important for the physician to distinguish ABT-263 uncomplicated grief reactions from more disabling psychiatric disorders such as major depression. The symptoms of grief may overlap with those of major depression or a terminal illness or its treatment; however, grief is a distinct entity. Feelings of pervasive hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness, guilt, lack of pleasure, and suicidal ideation are present in patients with depression, but not in those experiencing grief. Psychotherapy and antidepressant medications reduce symptoms of distress and improve quality of life for patients with depression. Physicians may consider psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate, for patients who have depression with a life expectancy of only days to weeks. (Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(3):259-264. Copyright (c) 2012 American Academy of Family Physicians.

These results suggest that, as found for some PPAR agonists, PPAR

These results suggest that, as found for some PPAR agonists, PPAR agonists can also reduce amyloid burden likely to be mediated by effects on amyloid clearance.”
“Background: Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact AC220 molecular weight on adolescents’ quality of life.

Aims: To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359) and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort

in Southern Brazil.

Methods: Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP) was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9). Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model.

Results: The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339). The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0) and OIDP =

2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8). The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%), follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively). In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant’s life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On selleck chemicals llc the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score.

Conclusion:

Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent’s early selleck inhibitor life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent’s quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.”
“Adapter-modified Ussing chambers have been used for assessment of endoscopically obtained intestinal biopsies in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of intestinal transport physiology in endoscopically-obtained colonic biopsies from cats and dogs. Fifteen colonic biopsies from four cats and 13 colonic biopsies from four dogs were transferred into a modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to several compounds. Baseline mean +/- D conductance was measured. Changes of short circuit current (Delta I-sc) were observed after exposure to glucose (number of feline biopsies that responded = 0/number of canine biopsies that responded = 4), phloridzin (n = 0/n = 7), histamine (n = 5/n = 12), serotonin (n = 7/n = 12), prostaglandin (n = 5/n = 7), forskolin (n = 7/n = 7), and ouabain (n = 9/n = 7).

The primary analysis was done on these 34 papers that reported 37

The primary analysis was done on these 34 papers that reported 37 correlation coefficients. To find the source of between-study selleck heterogeneity,

our secondary analysis was confined to eight studies that had used random sampling method and reported the correlations for the whole population. Results Our meta-analysis on 34 relevant papers revealed an overall significant inverse, but weak, association between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMI (Fisher’s Z=0.15, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.11) with a significant heterogeneity between studies. In the subgroup analysis based on gender and study location (East vs. West), the inverse associations were significant in both genders (male: Fisher’s Z=0.11, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.08 and female: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.08) and both study locations (East: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.04 and West: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.17). In the subgroup analysis based on developmental status of countries, the weak inverse association remained significant in developed countries (0.17, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.14), but not in developing nations (0.10, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.01).

Using meta-regression, we found that latitude (P=0.91) or longitude (P=0.2) of cities did not significantly contribute to the computed effect sizes. When we restricted our analysis to eight selected studies that used random sampling method, we reached the same findings. In this analysis, gender and developmental status of countries explained the between-study heterogeneity. Conclusion There is a significant SIS3 TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor inverse weak correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMI in adult population, except for women living in developing countries. Further research particularly in developing countries and populations living near the equator is needed.”
“A 37-year-old postpartum woman was presented with abdominal selleckchem pain supposed to be caused by uterine involution or puerperal endometritis after vaginal delivery. During the pregnancy, she was suspected to have a subscrosal myoma by ultrasound examination. The pain was finally

revealed to be originated from the chemical peritonitis caused by the rupture of the mature cystic teratoma of the ovary by Kristeller’s maneuver performed during vaginal delivery. When a pregnant or puerperal woman complains about abdominal pain, we need to consider the possibility of chemical peritonitis resulting from the rupture of mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.”
“Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of childbearing age, and it seems better to consider it as an ovarian manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate early atherosclerotic findings in patients with PCOS.

Methods: We enrolled 46 women with PCOS and 45 normal control subjects who were referred to our hospital’s endocrinology outpatient clinic. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were performed in both cases and matched controls.

Results: Patients with PCOS showed an increased mean CIMT (0.

Furthermore, we examined whether the

rs9939609 increased

Furthermore, we examined whether the

rs9939609 increased the CVD risk in the DPS and if these results could be replicated in a larger cross-sectional population-based random sample of Finnish men (the METSIM).

Methods and results: In the DPS, altogether 490 (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were genotyped for rs9939609. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality data were collected during the median follow-up of 10.2 years. The replication study was a population-based cross-sectional study of 6214 men.

In the DPS, the AA genotype of rs9939609 was associated, independently of BMI, with increased RANTES (p = 0.002) and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations (p LY3023414 supplier = 0.007) in men. During the follow-up, the AA genotype was associated with an adjusted 2.09-fold risk (95% CI 1.17-3.73, p = 0.013) of CVD in men.

In the METSIM Study, the association with a history of myocardial BMS-777607 concentration infarction was replicated in the subgroup of men with type 2 diabetes.

Conclusion: We suggest that the variation in the FTO gene may contribute to the development of CVD in men with an abnormal glucose metabolism. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick film magnets were prepared by a vacuum arc deposition method with the deposition rate of approximately 10 mu m/h followed by pulse-annealing process. It was found that an optimum amount of Nb additive is effective to enhance the coercivity without the deterioration of remanence and (BH)(max) values of the isotropic thick films. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3566061]“
“This work attempted to answer the question whether the central processes engaged in the memory formation and the epilepsy development are governed by the overlapping mechanisms. The effects of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) were examined on the expression and reconsolidation of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) – induced kindled seizures and

for comparative purposes, on the reconsolidation of conditioned fear response (conditioned freezing). It was found that post-test intracerebroventricular HCS assay administration of CHX (125 mu g/5 mu l) significantly attenuated the expression of a conditioned fear response examined 24 h later. Thus, inhibition of de novo brain protein synthesis interfered with the reconsolidation of a conditioned response. CHX given at the same dose repeatedly to fully kindled rats immediately after three consecutive sessions of PTZ-induced seizures (35 mg/kg ip) did not modify the strength of convulsions. On the other hand. CHX significantly attenuated the strength of convulsions when the drug was administered 1 h before the PTZ injection, which occurred every second day for three consecutive sessions.

During follow up, the overall survival time was assessed using th

During follow up, the overall survival time was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method in terms of elevated MIA (> 12 ng/mL) values. Regarding SLN status, significant differences of MIA values (P = 0.024) and LDH (P = 0.007) were found, both within the normal cut-off. Having

lymph node metastases in the completion lymph node dissection, significantly higher MIA values (12.55 ng/mL GSK1838705A cell line [+/- 0.48], P < 0.0001) were found. In patients with three or more tumor-positive nodes, MIA values were significantly higher when compared to patients with one or two affected nodes (P = 0.024). In the routine follow-up, stage III patients with an MIA value of more than 12 ng/mL had a five times higher risk for developing recurrences (P < AZD8186 solubility dmso 0.0001). Patients with

relapsing disease had a significantly (P < 0.0001) higher mean MIA value (13.76 ng/mL) compared to patients without relapse (7.52 ng/mL). The MIA serum marker can be helpful in patients undergoing lymph node dissection. Furthermore, during follow up, patients showing relapsing diseases can have an elevated MIA value.”
“The prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and self-reported systemic autoimmune diseases were increased in residents of Libby, MT, as was the incidence of ANA in Lewis rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) asbestos. However, rats induced to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) did not develop autoantibodies associated with RA, nor was RA exacerbated by LA exposure, suggesting that increased ANA expression might be related BYL719 ic50 to some other autoimmune process. Libby residents self-reported increased numbers of physician-diagnosed cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if the increased incidence of ANA in Lewis rats exposed to LA is related to the development of SLE-like

disease. Female Lewis rats were intratracheally instilled bi-weekly for 13 weeks with total doses of 0.15, 0.5, 1.5, or 5.0mg of LA or 0.5 or 1.5mg of a positive control fiber, amosite. ANA incidence was significantly increased in all asbestos dose groups, although no dose response was observed. The occurrence of proteinuria was increased in LA 0.5, LA 5.0, and amosite 0.5 dose groups; however, the microscopic appearance of the kidneys was normal, no binding of autoimmune complexes to glomerular surfaces was observed, and antibodies to double-stranded DNA were not elevated. Therefore, an increased prevalence of ANA in rats exposed to asbestos does not appear to correlate with disease markers typically observed in SLE. Analysis of ANA specificity for extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) determined that 98% of ENA(+) samples were specific for the Jo-1 antigen. Autoantibodies to Jo-1 have been reported in patients with interstitial lung disease, suggesting that autoantibodies to Jo-1 may be a biomarker for asbestos-related pulmonary disease.

(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved Semin Arthritis Rheum

(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:66-70″
“Fungal infection of nails, onychomycosis, is predominantly caused by Trichophyton rubrum. This infection is an important public health concern due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates. Alternative treatments are urgently required. One such alternative is phototherapy involving the action of photothermal or photochemical

processes. The aim of this novel study was to assess which wavelengths within the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum were inhibitory and equally important nail transmissible. Initial find protocol irradiations of T. rubrum spore suspensions were carried out using a tunable wavelength lamp system (fluence a parts per thousand currency sign3.1 J/cm(2)) at wavelengths between 280 and 400 nm (UVC to UVA) to evaluate which wavelengths prevented fungal growth. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of defined wavelengths were subsequently chosen with a view to evaluate and potentially implement this technology as a low-cost “”in-home”" treatment. Our experiments demonstrated that exposure at 280 nm using an LED with a fluence as low as 0.5 J/cm(2) was inhibitory, i.e.,

no growth following a 2-week incubation (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA), while exposure to longer wavelengths was not. A key requirement for the use of phototherapy Compound Library order in the treatment of onychomycosis is that it must be nail transmissible. Our results indicate that the treatment with

UVC is not feasible given that there is no overlap 17DMAG cell line between the antifungal activity observed at 280 nm and transmission through the nail plate. However, a potential indirect application of this technology could be the decontamination of reservoirs of infection such as the shoes of infected individuals, thus preventing reinfection.”
“Contents This study was carried out with the objectives to test the differences in the haemodynamic characteristics of the prostatic artery in normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-affected dogs using Doppler ultrasonography. In sixteen male German shepherd dogs, prostatic volume was detected and prostatic biopsy was performed. The prostatic artery blood flow parameters determined were as follows: peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), Resistive Index (RI) and Pulsatility Index. The power Doppler mode was used for colour flow mapping of the prostatic artery. In PW mode at marginal locations, the waveforms recorded showed a continuous pattern typical of the high-resistance vessels, while in subcapsular locations, the waveforms recorded were continuous characteristic of the low-resistance vessel. Peak systolic velocity and EDV in both locations were significantly higher in BPH group (p<0.001) than normal group (p<0.05). Pixel number in BPH group in both locations was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the normal group.

(PACE 2010; 414-419) “
“The objective of this article was to

(PACE 2010; 414-419).”
“The objective of this article was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated Lebanese Arabic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 in a sample of adult cancer patients in Lebanon.

The EORTC QLQ-C30 was translated into Lebanese Arabic and administered Proteasome assay to a convenient sample of 200 adult patients diagnosed

with cancer at a tertiary care center in Lebanon between 2009 and 2010. The psychometric indices assessed were reliability, multitrait scaling analysis, construct validity, and confirmatory factor analysis.

Six out of nine subscales had Cronbach’s alpha coefficients above 0.70. Multitrait scaling selleck analysis showed that all item-scale correlation coefficients met the set standards of convergent validity with the exception of item 5 only (95.8 %). In addition, 79.7 % of the item-scale correlation coefficients met the criterion for discriminant validity. In inter-scale correlations, all conceptually related scales had correlation coefficients of a parts per thousand yen0.40 with the exception of role functioning and fatigue scales having an undesirable correlation coefficient of -0.76. In known-groups comparison, the instrument differentiated significantly between some of the subscales with respect to education, employment, and age. CFA showed an almost

good fit (GFI = 0.87) with respect to our current data set.

The translated Lebanese Ricolinostat datasheet Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess the quality of life of Lebanese cancer patients.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate

the outcomes of cataract surgery in children with chronic uveitis.

SETTING: Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

METHODS: This retrospective chart review was of patients younger than 17 years with a history of uveitis who had cataract surgery before June 2004.

RESULTS: Thirty-four children (41 eyes) were identified. The mean age of the 10 boys and 24 girls was 9.8 years (range 4 to 17 years) and the mean total follow-up, 4.1 years (range 0.3 to 15.7 years). Twenty-one children had juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis, 7 had pars planitis, and 6 had other conditions. Sixteen patients had concomitant posterior segment pathology, 25 received perioperative immunomodulatory therapy, and 13 had intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The postoperative best corrected visual acuity improved in 35 of 41 eyes; 31 eyes had an improvement of 3.6 lines at 1 year. Most patients (92%) improved after IOL implantation. Most patients (88%) who received immunomodulatory therapy attained better vision, but this was not statistically significant compared with those who did not (P = .47). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference between those with posterior pathology and those without.

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Environ Toxicol 29: 705-713, 201

(c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 705-713, 2014.”
“Background: In 2006, a cluster of malaria deaths in the highly endemic Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India, led to assignment of additional resources. Malaria deaths decreased, but continued to occur. A study was conducted to identify Quizartinib research buy the risk factors for residual malaria deaths.

Methods: Malaria death was defined as a death from fever with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum among residents of Jalpaiguri during 2007-2008. For each case, three age-, sex- and locality-matched controls were

recruited among microscopically confirmed falciparum malaria patients cured during the same period. Clinical and treatment information was abstracted from records. Information about knowledge about malaria, presence of bed nets Epoxomicin purchase and DDT spraying was collected through interviews of the close relatives of study subjects. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated using multivariate methods.

Results:

51 malaria deaths were matched with 153 controls, which did not differ by age (median: 35 versus 36 years) and proportion of males (63% versus 63%). On multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with survivors, malaria deaths were more likely to have been admitted with already existing complications [OR = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-10)], treated at a private facility (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.2-12), received treatment after 48 hours of fever onset (OR = 14, 95% CI = 2.9-64), received chloroquine (OR = 13.3, 95% CI = 3.7-47). Households of the deceased were also more likely to miss bed nets (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.9-24) and DDT spraying (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.8-31).

Conclusion: Elimination of malaria deaths will require education of providers for prompt referral before complications, engagement of the private sector, community awareness for early treatment as well as scaled-up use of bed nets use and DDT. Use of newer generation anti-malarials must to be generalized.”
“Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an uncommon disorder, accounting for less than 10% of cases of renal artery stenosis, and typically presenting

with hypertension in young women. This article reports the case of a previously healthy 37-year-old man presenting with acute-onset, severe, bilateral flank pain. Initially treated for ureteral colic and urinary tract infection, Selleck Fosbretabulin he was transferred to the nephrology clinic upon recognition of a rising serum creatinine. He was found to have FMD of bilateral renal arteries with a stenotic pattern on the right side and a dissecting aneurysm on the left side with resultant infarctions in both kidneys. On the basis of negative serological markers of vasculitis, a diagnosis of FMD complicated by bilateral renal infarctions was made. A stent was placed to the right stenotic renal artery, which resulted in sufficient lumen patency. No invasive procedure was performed on the other side owing to the complexity of the lesion. After 2.

In conclusion, PNMS is a relevant factor in the programming of im

In conclusion, PNMS is a relevant factor in the programming of immune function. Its consequences may be related to disorders with an important immune component such as allergies.”
“Purpose The interval between symptom onset and therapy in patients with colorectal cancer was studied.

Methods

One hundred twenty three patients with colorectal cancer were included. Demography data, symptoms, consultations, and tumour stage were obtained by standardized questionnaires. Risk factors for delayed treatment were analysed.

Results Eighty six patients suffered from colonic cancer. The total time between the first symptoms and therapy ranged from 13 to 442 days (mean, 148). Delay of surgical therapy was responsible for significantly higher tumour GSI-IX mouse grades. Delayed start of therapy was found to be correlated to the type of cancer, socioeconomic status, marital status, and quality of first consultation (univariate analysis). On multivariate analyses, type of cancer, marital and socioeconomic status remained significantly associated with delayed treatment (all p values <= 0.001, r(2)=0.50).

Conclusions

The delay in treatment GW2580 cell line of colorectal cancer depends on socioeconomic status and family background. Achieving equity in colorectal cancer detection may require consideration of high-risk subgroups.”
“The inhibitor of growth (ING) family of proteins play key roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell aging, and the DNA damage response. To date, several domains including the plant homeodomain (PHD), lamin interacting domain (LID), and nuclear localization sequence (NLS) have been identified in

the ING family of proteins that contribute to their CYT387 mw function. To better understand the functional attributes of the ING proteins, we have developed and further characterized a panel of monoclonal IgGs that we call CAbs 1-9 based on their recognition sites, strength of binding affinity, and their specificity for ING1. All of the nine CAbs recognize the C-terminal half of the p33(ING1b) protein, which is fully conserved among all ING1 isoforms, being encoded by a common exon. Two of the nine CAbs bind a fragment that includes the PHD, which is the most conserved domain among ING family proteins (ING1-5), and one CAb cross-reacts with all ING family proteins that are encoded by different genes. Five of the nine CAbs recognized a fragment of ING1, which includes the NLS. Another two, CAb3 and CAb9, show affinity against an inter-domain sequence between the LID and the NLS. The sequence between the LID and NLS is less conserved among the ING proteins and, as expected, CAbs 3 and 9 were completely specific for ING1.