However, considering the clinical stage III a wide range of resul

However, considering the clinical stage III a wide range of results has been found in the literature [31–36]. Vahrson and Romer [14] reported a significantly greater survival rate for stage-III patients using HDR brachytherapy. In the series of Ferrigno et al [37] stage-III patients treated with HDR brachytherapy had a poorer outcome when compared with those treated with LDR brachytherapy. Overall survival and disease-free survival at a 5-year period was statistically superior in the

LDR group. These results probably are caused by the different tumor-related prognostic factors in stage-III patients, including tumor volume, extension of parametrial invasion (unilateral or bilateral), presence of hydronephrosis, lymph node metastasis, and extension of this website vaginal involvement. Consequently, when these patients do not receive radiotherapy combined to chemotherapy, they may still have a large volume of disease at the time of brachytherapy, even if one waits until the end of 5 weeks of daily treatment. With a large tumor volume at brachytherapy, point-A prescription SAHA HDAC price simply does not cover the tumor volume. The current treatment plan and technique for gynecological brachytherapy is still based on the conventional, orthogonal film-based approach developed 40 years ago. The source loading and dose prescription of a conventional point-A plan in cervical cancer is not consistent

with the individual tumor extent, resulting in either undercoverage of the tumor extent or unnecessary BI 10773 solubility dmso dosage of the surrounding normal tissue. So, in order to safely treat large volume disease (i.e. stage-IIIB patients), three dimensional

(3D) image-based treatment planning is necessary to ensure proper tumor coverage. Several investigators have studied three dimensional (3D) image-based brachytherapy planning using ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET) in cervical cancer [38–46]. Although the studies had some different findings, the conventional point-A plan, compared with the 3D image-guided plan, generally overestimated the minimal dose delivered to the target volume and underestimated the maximal doses Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase to the rectum and bladder [40, 42–46]. In addition to that, 3D image-guided planning allows the evaluation of individual dose distributions applied to a certain volume, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), and organs at risk. Recently, the GEC-ESTRO working group for gynecologic brachytherapy introduced guidelines for contouring the target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) for 3D image-based treatment planning in cervical cancer [41]. It is therefore imperative with HDR for large volume disease that the practitioners contour the normal tissues and look at the dose volume values to try to minimize normal tissue dose. Despite these limitations for large tumors (i.e.

In the current paper, we present our design and validation of a b

In the current paper, we present our design and validation of a broad-coverage quantitative real-time PCR assay—BactQuant—for quantifying 16 S rRNA gene copy number and estimating bacterial load. To

accomplish this, we have employed a novel nucleotide distribution-based approach to effectively summarize a large 16 S rRNA gene sequence dataset for qPCR assay design. We further addressed a general limitation of the qPCR platform—the normalization of in-run quantitative standards using fluorimetric or spectrometric methods—by developing an alternative qPCR-based method for quantifying plasmid standards. selleck products Lastly, we have complemented standard qPCR assay validation following MIQE guideline [10] with extensive in silico analysis using >670,000 16 S rRNA gene sequences from the Ribosomal Database Project [11]. Methods Design of 16 S rRNA gene quantitative real-time PCR assay Pre-aligned 16 S rRNA gene sequences (n = 4,938) were downloaded from the core set of the Greengenes database [12]. The alignment was analyzed to generate an output of nucleotide distribution—i.e., the summary of allele frequency at each nucleotide position in the 16 S rRNA gene KPT-330 research buy multiple sequence alignment file—and diversity score using a 3% gap-filter setting and the Simpson’s Diversity

Index, respectively. Assay Design The nucleotide distribution was examined to identify a conserved 500 bp region for assay design. In designing the assays, we selleck chemicals llc applied the following rules: 1) primer sequences cannot have more than three degenerate bases and 2) the probe sequence cannot have any degenerate bases. The primer Tm was calculated using salt adjusted calculation from the online tool OligoCalc [13] and the probe Tm was calculated using the Primer Probe Test Tool for TaqMan® MGB quantification from the Primer Express® Software for Real-Time PCR version 3.0 (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA) (Table1). Table 1 Primer and probe sequences of BactQuant,

the new 16 S rRNA gene-based quantitative enough real-time PCR (bold letters denotes degenerate base) BactQuant Tm (°C) E. coli region Forward Primer 5′- CCTACGGGDGGC WGCA-3′ 55.9–58.4 341–356 Reverse Primer 5′- GGACTACHVGGGT MTCTAATC -3′ 57.5–63.3 786–806 Probe (6FAM) 5′-CAGCAGCCGCGGTA-3′ (MGBNFQ) 68.0 519–532 Computational analysis of assay specificity and coverage A. Specificity analysis. Specificity check was performed in GenBank using megablast against human, mouse, and fungal sequences from the nucleotide collection (nr/nt) [14]. B. Collection and identification of bacterial 16 S rRNA gene sequence eligible for in silico coverage analysis. All 16 S rRNA gene sequence data used in the in silico coverage analysis were downloaded from the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Release 10 Update 20 [11].

“Background A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

“Background A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effect of a weight loss supplement on body LCZ696 order composition and fitness parameters following 8 weeks of supplementation and concomitant exercise training in college-aged males and females. Methods Weight, BMI, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM, body composition parameters, VO2Max, fasting glucose and lipid panels were evaluated before (pre-test) and

after (post-test) 56 days (8 weeks) of resistance and cardiovascular training, performed three times per week (totaling 24 workouts). Resistance training consisted of two sets of 12 repetitions of the following exercises: seated leg press, bench press, leg extension, leg curl, seated military press, lat pull, and cable row (75–80% 1 RM). Cardiovascular Erastin training consisted of 30 minutes

on a cycle ergometer at a predetermined heart rate (70–85% heart rate reserve). Both resistance and cardiovascular training intensity was increased every two weeks. Additionally, during the testing period, subjects consumed two doses per day of a weight loss supplement (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) as well as a once daily protein supplement. Results Fat mass and percent body fat were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in both groups. These differences were not statistically significant YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 purchase between groups. Consumption of a protein supplement and a weight loss supplement or protein supplement alone, while following a diet and exercise program, resulted in a significant decrease in fat mass and percent body fat and non-significant decreases in body mass and non-significant

increases in lean mass. Fitness status (upper-body strength, lower-body strength, VO2) significantly increased (p < 0.05) in both groups, but these differences were Immune system not statistically significant between groups. Lipid panels markers (e.g., triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) all experienced non-significant improvements in both groups, while serum glucose levels improved to a greater extent (p < 0.05) in the supplementation group. Conclusion A daily protein supplement in conjunction with a thrice weekly resistance training and cardiovascular exercise program increased fitness levels, decreased body and fat mass, improved body composition and improved clinical markers of coronary heart disease. Weight loss supplementation sustained these outcomes, while conferring an additional benefit for changes in serum glucose levels. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Champion Nutrition, Inc. (Sunrise, FL) for sponsoring this study."
“Background Supplementation with β-alanine has been associated with improved strength, anaerobic endurance, body composition and performance on tests of anaerobic power output following varying training protocols, including high intensity interval training (HIIT) and heavy resistance training.

Nat New Biol 1971,233(35):12–14 PubMed 11 Lafontaine D, Vandenha

Nat New Biol 1971,233(35):12–14.PubMed 11. Lafontaine D, Vandenhaute J, Tollervey D: The 18S rRNA dimethylase Dim1p

is required LB-100 order for pre-ribosomal RNA processing in yeast. Genes Dev 1995,9(20):2470–2481.PubMedCrossRef 12. Condon C: RNA processing and degradation in Bacillus subtilis. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2003,67(2):157–174.PubMedCrossRef 13. Bergman MA, Loomis WP, Mecsas J, Starnbach MN, Isberg RR: CD8(+) T cells restrict Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection: bypass of anti-phagocytosis by targeting antigen-presenting cells. PLoS Pathog 2009,5(9):e1000573.PubMedCrossRef 14. Shah DH, Zhou X, Kim HY, Call DR, Guard J: Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen. Infect Immun in press 15. McCoy LS, Xie Y, Tor Y: Antibiotics that target protein synthesis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2011,2(2):209–232.PubMedCrossRef 16. Comartin DJ, Brown ED: Non-ribosomal factors in ribosome subunit assembly are emerging targets for new antibacterial drugs. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2006,6(5):453–458.PubMedCrossRef 17. Campbell TL,

Henderson J, Heinrichs DE, Brown ED: The yjeQ gene is required for virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 2006,74(8):4918–4921.PubMedCrossRef 18. Clatworthy AE, Pierson E, Hung DT: Targeting virulence: a new paradigm for antimicrobial therapy. Nat Chem Biol 2007,3(9):541–548.PubMedCrossRef DMXAA manufacturer 19. Barczak AK, Hung DT: Productive steps toward an antimicrobial targeting virulence. Curr Opin Microbiol 2009,12(5):490–496.PubMedCrossRef 20. Arnaud M, Chastanet A, Debarbouille M: New vector for efficient allelic replacement in naturally nontransformable, low-GC-content, gram-positive bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004,70(11):6887–6891.PubMedCrossRef

21. O’Farrell HC, Pulicherla N, Desai PM, Rife JP: Recognition selleck chemicals of a complex substrate by the KsgA/Dim1 family of enzymes has been conserved throughout evolution. RNA 2006,12(5):725–733.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions HCO carried out all experiments and drafted the manuscript. JPR conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, participated in construction of the knockout strain, and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections remain a major cause of morbidity and selleck screening library mortality worldwide, causing diseases which range in severity from otitis media and sinusitis, to pneumonia, septicaemia and meningitis [1]. S. pneumoniae is a commensal of the human nasopharynx [2]. The diversity of pneumococci was first evidenced by serotyping of their capsular polysaccharides resolving into more than 93 serotypes [3, 4]. However, only 16 serotypes cause approximately 90% of invasive disease worldwide [1, 5].

In this study, labour status was based on self-reported current e

In this study, labour status was based on self-reported current economic status with five mutually exclusive categories: full-time employment (>32 h/week), part-time employment (<32 h/week), unemployment, disability pension, and homemaker. The ethnic background of the respondent was based on the country of origin of the mother. In case the mother was born in The

Netherlands, the country of birth of the father was leading (CBS 2003). Different ethnic groups were defined, based on differences in experiences of migration (Alpelisib clinical trial refugees or labour migrants) and differences in geographical and cultural distance from the Netherlands. Three ethnic minority groups were defined: (1) Turks and Moroccans, (2) Antilleans and Surinamese, and 4EGI-1 molecular weight (3) refugees. Turks and Moroccans initially came as labour Tozasertib migrants to the Netherlands from the early 1960s, while the migration of Surinamese and Antilleans/Arubans is related to the colonial past. Refugees are another important group of migrants from designated countries such as Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bosnia, China, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Hong Kong, Iran, Iraq, Kosovo, Liberia, Nigeria, Sudan, Serve, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Korea, Syria and former Yugoslavia. Immigrants from other countries were not included in the analysis (n = 296). Subjects were divided into three

groups according to their highest level of educational attainment. A high educational level check was defined as higher vocational training or university; an intermediate educational level was defined as higher secondary schooling or intermediate vocational training, and a low educational level was defined as no education, primary school,

lower and intermediate secondary schooling or lower vocational training. Marital status was used to distinguish those subjects married or living together with others. Health measures Self-reported health (SRH) was measured by asking subjects to rate their overall health on a 5-point scale, ranging from ‘excellent’, ‘very good’, ‘good’ and ‘fair’ to ‘poor’. Those reporting less than ‘good health’ were defined as having a poor health (Fayers and Sprangers 2002). Health was also measured with the Dutch version of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) (Ware and Sherbourne 1992). The SF-36 consists of 36 items that were used to calculate scores on eight dimensions: physical functioning, general health, mental health, bodily pain, social functioning, vitality, role limitation due to emotional health problems, and role limitation due to physical health problems. Scores could range from 0 to 100, with a higher score indicating a better health related quality of life. Statistical analysis Characteristics of subjects were analysed using descriptive statistics.

To address this, we have developed FungiQuant analysis guideline

To address this, we have developed FungiQuant analysis guideline for differentiating random noise from true detection. Lastly, to address the potential presence of exogenous fungal DNA, we recommend the use of negative controls at each sample processing and analysis step. With respect to FungiQuant LOD, it is worth noting that a concentration of 1.8 copies/μl of 18S rRNA gene is the equivalent of 0.5 fg/μl of C. albicans DNA, with the assumption of 55 18S rRNA gene copy number per haploid genome [40]. This concentration, using the published haploid genome size of 15.185 × 10-3 pg for C. albicans shows that 0.5 fg is the equivalent of 1/30 of a single C. albicans genome [40]. Using the

same estimates, the 5-copy LOD of FungiQuant 4-Hydroxytamoxifen solubility dmso is thus the equivalent of 1.38 fg/μl of C. albicans DNA, or the 1/11 of a single C. albicans genome. Similar conversions of DNA concentration and genomic equivalents for LOD estimation for other fungal species can be performed accordingly; this can help to facilitate estimation of DNA concentrations and genomic equivalents of fungi present at levels below other quantitation approaches, including spectrometric and fluorimetric methods. Use of a probe-based reporting mechanism is Raf inhibitor an important feature in FungiQuant in two respects. First, it enhances the quantitative capability of FungiQuant, and secondly, improves

assay specificity. An example illustrating the advantage of probe-based reporting is the comparison of FungiQuant with an intercalating dye-based qPCR assay, which had amplification efficiencies ranging from Bucladesine solubility dmso 67-103% and a LOD of 500pg of fungal DNA [30]. Additionally, the intercalating dye can generate amplification signal irrespective of amplicon size or composition. In summary, we have developed and evaluated a new broad-coverage qPCR assay—FungiQuant—for diverse Evodiamine fungal detection and quantification that showed broad assay coverage and favorable quantitative parameters. A limitation of the current manuscript is the conversion from 18S rRNA gene copy number to the number of cells or biomass. In order to generate an estimated genomic equivalent, improved knowledge of 18S rRNA gene copy number of

diverse fungi is required. And given that 18S rRNA gene copy number varies among fungal species and even among strains or over the lifetime of the fungi [41–43], this challenge will likely to persist. In addition to the design and validation of a broad-coverage fungal qPCR assay, our manuscript also sought to address basic limitations of evaluating combined primer and probe coverage, as well as generating reference standards for absolute quantification. Our approach of evaluating assay coverage by considering the primer and probe sequences as a single unit is appropriate and necessary. Additionally, our approach of quantifying plasmid standards using the intrinsic property of real-time PCR is another important step for any absolute quantification experiments using qPCR.

: 55°C; amplicon length:

500 bp Construction of the fusio

: 55°C; amplicon length:


  16 s-F TTCCTCCAGATCTCTACGCA   16 s-R GTGGCTAATACCGCATAACG   Table 3 Phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae in  S  . Typhimurium Strain Plasmid transformed Phenotypic expression of type-1 fimbriae a     agar broth LB5010 none – ++ Δstm0551 none + ++ Δstm0551 pSTM0551 – - Δstm0551 pSTM0551E49A + ++ Δstm0551 pACYC184 + ++ a Phenotypic expression of type-1 fimbriae was determined using a mannose-sensitive yeast agglutination test and guinea pig erythrocyte hemagglutination test Figure 3 Phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae in  S  . Typhimurium analyzed by yeast agglutination test. S. Typhimurium LB5010 prepared from broth medium Salubrinal research buy exhibited isometheptene positive agglutination phenotype, while those prepared from agar medium showed homogenous appearance on the glass slide. Δstm0551 strain, prepared from either agar or broth medium, both demonstrated agglutination. Transforming pSTM0551 into Δstm0551 inhibited agglutination. The transformants

possessing either pSTM0551E49A or pACYC184 cloning vector exhibited the same agglutination phenotype as Δstm0551 strain. Electron microscopy S. Typhimurium LB5010 prepared in static LB broth culture demonstrated fimbrial appendages on the outermembrane of the cell (Figure 4, panel A). On the contrary, S. Typhimurium LB5010 grown on agar medium did not produce type1 fimbriae (Figure 4, panel B). The S. Typhimurium Δstm0551 strain prepared from static broth medium (Figure 4, panel C) or agar (Figure 4, panel D) produced fimbrial structures. Figure 4 Observation of  S  . Typhimurium LB5010 and the  S  . Typhimurium Δ  stm0551  strain by electron microscopy. Panel A: S. Typhimurium LB5010 obtained following growth under static LB broth conditions at 37°C for 48 h produced type 1 fimbrial appendages (40,000 ×). Panel B: No fimbrial structures were observed on the S. Typhimurium LB5010 grown on LB agar at 37°C for 18 hr (30,000 ×). Panel C: S.

Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1: L

Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1: LMP1 promoted the interaction of phosphorylated EGFR and phosphorylated STAT3. Two mg of protein from cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with an anti-phosphorylated EGFR antibody (p-EGFR) and analyzed by Western blotting with a phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3)

and p-EGFR antibodies. Negative controls selleck products included immunoprecipitation with an unrelated antibody (IgG). (PPT 4 MB) References 1. Raab-Traub N: Epstein–Barr virus transforming proteins: biologic properties and contribution to oncogenesis. In DNA tumor viruses. Edited by: Damania B, Pipas JM. New York, NY: Springer; 2009:259–284.CrossRef 2. Strong MJ, Xu G, Coco J, Baribault C, Vinay DS, Lacey MR, Strong AL, Lehman TA, Seddon MB, Lin Z, et al.: Differences in gastric carcinoma microenvironment stratify according to EBV infection intensity: implications for possible immune adjuvant therapy. PLoS Pathog 2013,9(5):e1003341.PubMedCrossRef 3. van Beek J, zur Hausen A, Klein Kranenbarg E, van de Velde CJ, Middeldorp JM, van den Brule AJ, Meijer CJ, Bloemena E: EBV-positive gastric adenocarcinomas: a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a low frequency of lymph node involvement. J Clin Oncol 2004,22(4):664–670.PubMedCrossRef Niraparib 4. Kijima Y, Ishigami S,

Hokita S, Koriyama C, Akiba S, Eizuru Y, Aikou T: The comparison of the prognosis between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric carcinomas and EBV-negative ones. Cancer Lett 2003,200(1):33–40.PubMedCrossRef 5. Sasagawa T, Shimakage M, Nakamura M, Sakaike J, Ishikawa H, Inoue

M: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genes expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer: a comparative study with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Hum Pathol 2000,31(3):318–326.PubMedCrossRef 6. Schmauz R, Okong P, de Villiers EM, Dennin R, Brade L, Lwanga SK, Owor R: Multiple infections in cases of cervical cancer from a high-incidence area in tropical Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase Africa. Int J Cancer 1989,43(5):805–809.PubMedCrossRef 7. Yang YY, Koh LW, Tsai JH, Tsai CH, Wong EF, Lin SJ, Yang CC: Correlation of viral factors with cervical cancer in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol selleck inhibitor Infect 2004,37(5):282–287.PubMed 8. Awerkiew S, Bollschweiler E, Metzger R, Schneider PM, Holscher AH, Pfister H: Esophageal cancer in Germany is associated with Epstein-Barr-virus but not with papillomaviruses. Med Microbiol Immunol 2003,192(3):137–140.PubMedCrossRef 9. Whitaker NJ, Glenn WK, Sahrudin A, Orde MM, Delprado W, Lawson JS: Human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in prostate cancer: koilocytes indicate potential oncogenic influences of human papillomavirus in prostate cancer. Prostate 2013,73(3):236–241.PubMedCrossRef 10. Fahraeus R, Fu HL, Ernberg I, Finke J, Rowe M, Klein G, Falk K, Nilsson E, Yadav M, Busson P, et al.

enterica for typing purposes J Clin Microbiol 2004,42(12):5722–5

enterica for typing purposes. J Clin Microbiol 2004,42(12):5722–5730.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 51. Chang CH, Chang YC, Underwood A, Chiou CS, Kao CY: VNTRDB: a bacterial variable number tandem repeat locus database. Nucleic Acids Res 2007,35(Database issue):D416-D421.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 52. Bart R, Cohn M, Kassen A, McCallum EJ, Shybut M, Petriello A, Krasileva K, Dahlbeck D, Medina C, Alicai buy CYT387 T, Kumar L, Moreira LM, Rodrigues-Neto J, Verdier V, Santana MA, Kositcharoenkul N, Vanderschuren H, Gruissem W, Bernal A, Staskawicz BJ: High-throughput genomic sequencing of cassava bacterial blight

strains identifies conserved effectors to target for durable resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012,109(28):E1972-E1979.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions CT was involved in the conception and design of the study, sampling, bacterial isolation, molecular characterization using AFLPs and VNTRs, data Selleckchem Copanlisib analyses STI571 concentration and who wrote the manuscript. NAR performed DNA extraction, the evaluation of 3 VNTR loci, VNTR data analyses and drafting of the manuscript. LP contributed in the evaluation 3 VNTR loci, VNTR data analyses and drafting of the manuscript. CM carried the sampling and data acquisition. AT participated in the data acquisition and revised the content of the manuscript. SR was involved in the conception and design of the study, drafting Niclosamide and revising the manuscript. RK was involved in the conception and design of the study and the design of the VNTR strategy. AB participated in the conception and design of the project, funding acquisition,

editing and revisiting of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Although group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) was originally described as a cause of mastitis in bovines, it has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in humans. GBS is typically a commensal in the urogenital and lower gastrointestinal tracts of healthy adults, and pregnant women can transmit the bacterium to their baby during childbirth. Newborns infected with GBS can develop life threatening infections including pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. GBS has also been shown to cause disease in the elderly and adults with underlying medical conditions where skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia can result [1]. Molecular epidemiological studies utilizing multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have shown that the distribution of GBS lineages varies by source. Strains belonging to clonal complex (CC)-17 and CC-19, for example, more frequently caused newborn disease compared to strains of other CCs [2–4], with CC-17 strains causing more cases of meningitis and late-onset disease [2].

The intensity ratios of the two peaks (i e , I D/I G), which

The intensity ratios of the two peaks (i.e., I D/I G), which

has frequently been used to appraise the crystallinity of CNTs [17], were estimated. The resultant I D/I G values, as listed in Table  1, indicated that the I D/I G values were seldom changed by coating of the Selleck ARN-509 Al interlayers, but they were significantly reduced by thermal treatment, such as 0.57 to 0.59 for the as-deposited CNTs and 0.40 to 0.43 for the thermally treated CNTs. This may have been because the amorphous carbonaceous by-products, residual binders, and other impurities that were adsorbed on the CNTs’ outer walls were Rigosertib cell line somewhat removed during the thermal treatment. Accordingly, it can be inferred from the FESEM and Raman results that the enhanced electron emission of the thermally treated CNTs may be due to the improvement of their crystal qualities

[18]. Figure 2 The Raman spectra of the CNTs. The estimated I D/I G values are also displayed for all of the CNTs. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS; MultiLab 2000, Thermo, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) was used to analyze the chemical bonds of the CNTs. Figure  3a,b shows the XPS spectra of the C 1 s state for all of the CNT samples. The C 1 s spectra were composed of several characteristic peaks, such as two peaks due to the carbon-carbon interactions including C-C sp 2 bonds at the binding energy of 284.4 to 284.7 eV selleck products and C-C sp 3 bonds at 285.1 to 285.5 eV, and two relatively weak peaks due to the carbon-oxygen interactions including C-O bonds at 286.4 to 286.7 eV and C = O bonds at 287.8 to 288.1 eV [19]. Also, the variations of the peak intensities Histone demethylase due to thermal treatment were calculated, which are expressed in Figure  3a,b as the intensity ratios of thermally treated CNTs (i.e., CNT-B or CNT-D) to as-deposited

CNTs (i.e., CNT-A or CNT-C) for each peak (e.g., CNT-B/CNT-A = 1.08 for the C-C sp 2 peak as shown in Figure  3a). The results show that after the thermal treatment, the C-C sp 2 bonds increased, but the C-C sp 3 bonds decreased. This implies the improvement of the CNTs’ crystal qualities, which corresponds to the Raman analysis as shown in Figure  2. After the thermal treatment, furthermore, both of the C-O and C = O peaks were observed to be reduced. These carbon-oxygen peaks indicate that oxygen contaminants such as the carbonyl (C = O), carboxyl (-COOH), and hydroxyl (O-H) groups, which may be generated inevitably by acid treatment during the purification process [20], exist in the CNTs. Accordingly, the decrease of the carbon-oxygen peaks in the XPS spectra indicated that the decomposition of the oxygen contaminants occurred via the thermal treatment [21]. Figure 3 The XPS spectra for C 1  s states of the CNTs. (a) The XPS spectra of the CNT-A and CNT-B samples. (b) The XPS spectra of the CNT-C and CNT-D samples.