These data are in agreement Palbociclib buy with the literature of the field, since Bragdon and colleagues Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries showed the involvement of CK2 in BMP2 induced cells. The release of CK2 from BMP receptor type I is related with osteblastogenesis, since specific peptides which interfere with this interaction, destabilize the CK2 BMPRI complex and enhance osteo blastic differentiation. It is possible that the role of CK2 in osteogenesis is much more than its release from BMPRI, involving many of the substrates found in this work and even other ones which could contribute to the enrollment of these undifferentiated stem cells to osteoblastogenesis. The involvement of p38 MAPK in BMP2 driven osteoblatogenesis is well known.
Several studies show activation of p38 within the first hour of BMP2 in duction, and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries activation of Dlx5 and Osx, essential genes involved in osteblastic differentiation, Drug_discovery as well as al kaline phosphatase. We confirmed these data in our model using quantitative real time PCR experiments, showing an increase in mRNA relative expression for Osx and Dlx5. It is interesting to note that p38 may be involved in phosphorylation of several phosphoproteins found in our study, since 120 sites were predicted to be phosphorylated by this kinase. Upon BMP2 treatment, JNK may also be activated, as previous studies described. We found that 9% of all sites could be phosphorylated by this kinase up to 2 h of BMP2 treatment. Interestingly, JNK is transiently acti vated in MC3T3 E1cells, in a short window, stimulating the expression of osteocalcin.
However, at late periods of BMP2 induction, JNK acts inhibiting the RUNX2 function by its phos phorylation at Ser 104 in C2C12 cells. These Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries results show the dual function of JNK in osteoblastogenesis, which is regulated in a time dependent manner. At early periods of time, JNK may have a role inducing osteogenesis, by phosphorylating intracellular substrates and augmenting the cellular sensibility for BMP2. On the other hand, at late periods, JNK would participate by slowing down the intracellular signaling for osteodiffentiation. Similar number of phosphorylated sites were found for the CDK group of kinases. These kinases are re lated with cell cycle progression, and their activation or inhibition Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries is associated with proliferation and quies cence, respectively. At a first glance, the activity of CDK kinases could lead to an impairment of osteoblastic differ entiation, due to stimulation of cell proliferation. The role of Trichostatin A molecular weight CDK in osteoblastic differentiation is not well under stood yet, however, its inhibitor, the p21 protein, has been involved in osteoblastic differentiation since p21 null mice exhibit enhanced osteoblastic differentiation, and overexpression of p21 protein delays bone forma tion.