\n\nStudy Design\n\nAnalysis of a national database for all US civil trials.\n\nMethods\n\nThe Westlaw database was reviewed from 2001 to 2011. Data were compiled on the demographics of the plaintiffs, use of expert witnesses, procedures, nature of the injury, legal allegations, verdicts, and indemnities.\n\nResults\n\nOne hundred ninety-eight cases met inclusion criteria. Verdicts for the defendant/otolaryngologist
predominated (58%), whereas the average AG-881 award when the verdict favored the plaintiff was $1,782,514. When otolaryngologists were used as expert witnesses by the defense, the verdict outcome statistically favored the defendant. Two of the most commonly cited legal allegations were improper performance and failure to diagnose and treat. Fifty-one cases involved allegations of wrongful death, with the overall outcome favoring the plaintiffs (51%). The average indemnities in these cases were significantly www.selleckchem.com/products/CX-6258.html higher for plaintiff verdicts at $2,552,580 versus settlements at $992,896. Forty-two cases involved malignancy, with the two most common allegations being failure to diagnose and treat (79%) and delay in diagnosis (74%).\n\nConclusions\n\nOur study reveals that in the past decade, in significant
malpractice litigations, overall outcomes favored otolaryngologists. The average awards was significantly higher when cases involved malignancy. Our analysis reveals the importance of meticulous surgical techniques and thorough preoperative evaluations. Last, when otolaryngologists are defendants in litigation, our review reiterates the value of the otolaryngologist as the defense’s expert witnesses. Laryngoscope, 124:896-901, 2014″
“Although, historically, the political power structure of Iranian society has partly been under the influence of the structures of rural, tribal, and also traditional urban culture, this trend has been accelerated after the revolution in 1979 due to extreme migrations of villagers to cities and the intermingling of the rural-urban culture and also taking power of resented social groups with rural origins. Coming to the power of these
social groups has made a kind of duality in Iran’s political power structure. This duality CBL0137 ic50 led to some turmoil and disorder among government and the people on national interests and solving the problems of the society. The present article tries to examine causes and factors affecting this dispute and considers the cognitive aspects of this issue, particularly the sociological aspects. The results of this study show that the political structure in Iran and its structural characteristics are under the influence of rural culture and socio-economic aspects. In other words, the political power structure is the result of social and rural connections. [Mohsen Alini, Maryam Bijan. A Review on Causes and Factors Affecting on the Power Structure of Rural Culture in Iranian Society of Post-Islamic Revolution. Life Sci J 2012; 9(4): 4251-4259].