Here, we present the first transcriptome-wide expression profiling AZD1480 cell line study comparing the two types (diffuse n=19, intestinal n=24), which identified >1000 genes that are differentially expressed. Among them, thrombospondin 4 (THBS4) showed the strongest correlation to histological type, with vast overexpression in the diffuse type. Quantitative real-time PCR validated this strong overexpression and revealed that intestinal tumors generally lack THBS4 expression. Immunohistochemistry
demonstrated THBS4 overexpression on the protein level (n=10) and localized THBS4 to the stromal aspect. Its expression was primarily observed within the extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor cells, with the highest intensities
found in regions of high tumor cell density and invasion. Intestinal tumors and matched non-neoplastic gastric epithelium and stroma did not feature any relevant THBS4 expression in a preliminary selection of analyzed cases (n=5). Immunohistochemical colocalization and in vitro studies revealed that THBS4 is expressed and secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts. Furthermore, we show that THBS4 transcription in fibroblasts is stimulated by tumor cells. This study is the first to identify GF120918 research buy THBS4 as a powerful marker for diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinomas and to provide an initial characterization of its expression in the course of this disease. Modern Pathology (2011) 24, 1390-1403; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2011.99; published online 24 June 2011″
“The aim of this paper was to assess whether the morphological appearance (i.e. histological tumor type and histological grade) of
simultaneous invasive breast carcinoma foci is heterogeneous, since it is known that adjuvant therapy is established according to these parameters. Patients with simultaneous breast tumors in which only the features of the largest neoplastic focus are reported could thus be undertreated.\n\nA retrospective study of 418 cases of breast carcinomas was conducted over a 3-year period. The histological tumor types and histological grades of multifocal/multicentric Selleckchem Poziotinib carcinomas in each tumor focus were compared, and mismatches among foci were recorded.\n\nNinety-one of the 418 cases reviewed had multiple carcinomas (21.77%). A comparison between multiple synchronous tumor foci revealed that their histological type was different in 12.08% of the cases. Mismatches among foci were also observed in 9.89% of the cases when evaluating the histological grade, and 5 out of 9 additional tumor foci with a different grade from the largest (index) tumor (55.55%) displayed a higher grade compared to the index tumor.