The mRNA and protein levels of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, and Ki-ras) and tumor suppressor genes (p53, Rb, and p16) were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and Western blot analysis.
The results showed that mRNA and protein levels of c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Ki-ras, and p53 in lungs were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while mRNA and protein levels of Rb and p16 were decreased in AZD6244 in vitro lungs of rats after SO2 inhalation. These results lead to a conclusion that SO2 exposure could activate expressions of proto-oncogenes and suppress expressions of tumor suppressor genes, which might relate to the molecular mechanism of cocarcinogenic properties RepSox supplier and potential carcinogenic effects of SO2. According to previous studies, the results also indicated that promoter
genes of apoptosis and tumor suppressor genes could produce apoptotic signals to antagonize the growth signals that arise from oncogenes. Understanding its molecular controls will benefit development of treatments for many diseases. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 272-283, 2010.”
“Raloxifene is the first selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been approved for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Europe and in the US. Although raloxifene reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in postmenopausal women at high risk for invasive breast cancer, it is approved in that indication in the US but not in the EU. The aim was to characterize the clinical profiles of postmenopausal women expected to benefit most from therapy with raloxifene based on published scientific evidence to date.
Key individual patient characteristics relevant to the prescription of raloxifene in daily practice were defined by a board
of Swiss experts in the fields of menopause and metabolic bone diseases and linked to published scientific evidence. Consensus was reached about translating these insights into daily practice.
Through estrogen agonistic effects on bone, raloxifene reduces biochemical MS-275 datasheet markers of bone turnover to premenopausal levels, increases bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total body, and reduces vertebral fracture risk in women with osteopenia or osteoporosis with and without prevalent vertebral fracture. Through estrogen antagonistic effects on breast tissue, raloxifene reduces the risk of invasive estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in postmenopausal women at high risk for invasive breast cancer. Finally, raloxifene increases the incidence of hot flushes, the risk of venous thromboembolic events, and the risk of fatal stroke in postmenopausal women at increased risk for coronary heart disease.