It is unclear from the literature which patients are the best can

It is unclear from the literature which patients are the best candidates for fusion versus conservative management when experiencing CLBP without significant neurological impairment.

Nonsmokers may be more likely to have a favorable surgical fusion outcome in CLBP patients. Comorbid disease presence has not been shown to definitively modify the effect of fusion. Further prospective studies that are designed to evaluate these and other subgroup effects are encouraged to confirm these findings.

Clinical Recommendations. We recommend optimizing the management of medical co-morbidities and smoking cessation before considering surgical fusion in CLBP patients. Strength of recommendation: Weak”
“The Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination (BCG) contributed widely to

reduce tuberculosis incidence in developing countries. The aim of this report was to assess the clinical “”spectrum”" and outcome of tuberculous meningitis in 16 Bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated Cilengitide mouse Tunisian children. They were 9 boys and 7 girls aged 2 to 168 months (median 72 months +/- 65.88). Patients presented mainly with nonspecific symptoms. Neurologic severity was classified as grade I (n = 6) and grade II or III (n = 10). At short-term course, the majority of patients developed serious complications: hydrocephalus (n = 12), seizures (n = 8), tuberculoma (n = 6), and acute respiratory failure (n = 2). Three patients died. Among survivors, 4 patients showed a complete recovery while 9 developed permanent sequelae which were mild (n = 6) to severe (n = 3). Despite the Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination, tuberculous meningitis remains a life-threatening condition; vaccinated children have shown compound screening assay common presentation of tuberculous meningitis in terms of severity and poor outcome.”
“Only 2 neonates with transplacentally or perinatally acquired (congenital) babesiosis have been reported. We describe a probable third congenital case of babesiosis in a 26-day-old infant; transmission was determined on the basis of a blood smear from the infant (15% parasitemia) and serologic results from the infant and mother.”
“Background: Little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic

resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.

Methods: To describe diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns in Cambodia, 600 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and 578 children without diarrhea (controls) were enrolled from a hospital in Phnom Penh. Stool samples were collected, and pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns were described.

Results: The most frequently isolated pathogens in these cases were enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (20%) and rotavirus (26%). Enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, Shigella, Aeromonas, rotavirus, and adenovirus were statistically significantly associated with diarrhea. Among cases, vomiting was associated with viral infections, whereas bloody stool was associated with Shigella.

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