The application of unpaired and extinction control procedures dem

The application of unpaired and extinction control procedures demonstrated that also in teleosts the learning of this motor response depends on associative rules. In Experiment 2 we studied whether classical conditioning of this response is critically dependent on the cerebellum and independent

of telencephalic structures as occurs in mammals. Cerebellum lesion prevented the acquisition of the eyeblink-like conditioned response whereas telencephalon ablation did not impair the learning of this response. No deficit was observed following lesions in the performance of the unconditioned response or in the percentage of spontaneous responses. These results suggest that cerebellum ablation in goldfish affects a critical component of the circuitry necessary for the acquisition of the conditioned response but does not interfere with the ability

of the animal to perform the response itself. The striking similarity in the role of cerebellum in classical conditioning of a motor response between teleost fish and mammals suggests that this learning function of the cerebellum could be a primitive feature of the vertebrate brain that has been conserved through evolution. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“How many generations XMU-MP-1 ago did the common ancestor of all present-day individuals live, and how does inbreeding affect this estimate? The number of ancestors within family trees determines the timing of the most recent common ancestor of humanity. However, mating is often non-random and inbreeding is ubiquitous in natural populations. Rates of pedigree growth are found for multiple types of inbreeding. This data is then combined with models from of global population structure to estimate biparental coalescence times. When pedigrees for regular systems of mating are constructed, the growth rates of inbred populations contain Fibonacci n-step constants. The timing of the most recent common ancestor depends

on global population structure, the mean rate of pedigree growth, mean fitness, and current population size. Inbreeding reduces the number of ancestors in a pedigree, pushing back global common ancestry times. These results are consistent with the remarkable findings of previous studies: all humanity shares common ancestry in the recent past. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mice provide a highly valuable resource for investigating learning and memory processes; however, many of the established tasks for evaluating learning and memory were developed for rats. Behaviors of mice in these tasks appear to be driven by different motivational factors, and as a result, they often do not perform reliably on tasks involving rewards traditionally used for rats.

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