“Objectives: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone

“Objectives: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone is a rare, late complication of radiotherapy to the temporal bone region for head and neck or skull base tumours. ORN can occur as a localized or a diffuse type, according to the extension of the affected temporal bone. It can lead to otitis externa, otitis media, aseptic labyrinthitis

and may lead to serious intracranial complications. Hearing loss may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. A few case studies report of previously irradiated patients presenting with conductive hearing loss presumably caused by ORN of the ossicular chain. In only one case report of diffuse ORN, ORN of the ossicles was histologically proven, leading to the conclusion that ossicular chain involvement as the sole entity of ORN would not exist. However, the presented case report disputes this.

Patients: R788 supplier A 13-year-old boy presenting Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor with a unilateral mixed hearing loss as the sole otological complaint, 10 years after radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma.

Results: Middle ear inspection revealed ORN of the incus which was confirmed by histological investigation.

Conclusion: ORN of the ossicular chain as a late complication can occur as an isolated entity and may present as

conductive hearing loss predominantly in the low frequencies. Middle ear inspection and ossicular chain reconstruction should be attempted, bearing in mind the risk of iatrogenic lacerations of a thin tympanic membrane and

possibly a delayed wound healing.”
“We summarize recent advances in the clinical genetics of hypercholesterolemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and lethal arrhythmia, all of which are monogenic cardiovascular diseases being essential to understanding the heart and circulatory pathophysiology. Among the issues of hypercholesterolemia which play a pivotal role in development of vascular damages, familial hypercholesterolemia is the common genetic cardiovascular disease; in addition S63845 molecular weight to identifying the gene mutation coding low-density lipoprotein receptor, lipid kinetics in autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia as well as in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 gene mutation were recently demonstrated. As for HCM, some gene mutations were identified to correlate with clinical manifestations. Additionally, a gene polymorphism of the renin-angiotensin system in development of heart failure was identified as a modifier gene. The lethal arrhythmias such as sudden death syndromes, QT prolongation, and Brugada syndrome were found to exhibit gene mutation coding potassium and/or sodium ion channels. Interestingly, functional analysis of these gene mutations helped to identify the role of each gene mutation in developing these cardiovascular disorders.

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