“In studies

“In studies GSK923295 ic50 of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),

individual metal nanoparticle and particle assemblies introduce enhancement of electromagnetic fields. However, the contributions to enhancement due to the substrate supporting the particles are yet to be studied analytically. In this communication, we present an analytical method to investigate the effect of a substrate with realistic layers in SERS. The proposed method quantifies the effect of a substrate on the electric field on the nanoparticles surface in SERS experiments. By applying the proposed method, optimal constructions of a substrate can be obtained to maximize the surface electric field while a poorly constructed one can be avoided. The maximization can lead to a high Raman enhancement factor. The method is verified using numerical simulations.”
“Background: Pruritis caused by

atopic see more dermatitis (AD) is not always well controlled by topical corticosteroid therapy, but use of tacrolimus often helps to soothe such intractable pruritis in clinical settings. Objective: To determine the anti-pruritic efficacy of topical tacrolimus in treating AD in induction and maintenance therapy. Methods: Prior to the study, patients were randomly allocated into two groups, induction therapy followed by tacrolimus monotherapy maintenance, and induction therapy followed by emollient-only maintenance. In the induction therapy, the patients were allowed to use topical tacrolimus and emollients in addition to a low dose (<10 g/week) of topical steroids. Patients showing relief from pruritis were allowed to proceed to maintenance therapy. Recurrence of pruritis in maintenance therapy was examined as a major endpoint. Results: Two-thirds

of patients (44/68; 64.7%) showed relief from pruritis after induction therapy. Pruritis recurred in 23.8% (5/21) of the tacrolimus monotherapy group and in 100% (21/21) of the emollient group during maintenance period, a difference that was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of topical tacrolimus is effective in controlling pruritis of AD compared to emollient. (Ann Dermatol 24(2) 144 similar to 150, 2012)”
“Basidiobolus ranarum (Entomophthoromycotina) very rarely affects the gastrointestinal find more (GI) tract. To date, reported paediatric GI basidiobolomycosis cases are 27 worldwide; 19 from Saudi Arabia and 8 from other parts of the world. Often these cases present a diagnostic dilemma, are prone to misdiagnosis and lack of disease confirmation by proper molecular methodologies. The fungal mass removed by surgery is usually sent for conciliar histopathology, isolation by fungal cultures and final molecular testing for basidiobolomycosis. The incidence of basidiobolomycoses, their predisposing factors and the molecular diagnosis of the fungus causing the disease in combination with a phylogenetic framework are reviewed.

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