For wet indentation cases, the existence of water molecules between the GW786034 indenter and the work material generates repulsive force at the beginning. The force is large enough to overcome the combined attraction force on the indenter, so the indentation force seldom appears to be negative. Besides, the repulsive force between the indenter and the water results in higher indentation force when the indentation depth is less than 2 nm. Figure 3 Effect
of water molecules on indentation force at the speeds of (a) 10 and (b) 100 m/s. Fluctuation can be observed ARN-509 in all curves. This is introduced by complex dislocation movement of atomic layers in the single-crystal copper during the indentation process. Similar observations are reported click here by other studies as well [28, 29]. Higher indentation force should be linked to more drastic copper atom dislocation movement and entanglement. This can be confirmed by the dislocation movements of cases 1 and 2, as shown in Figure 4. For both cases, when the indenter penetrates into the surface of the copper material,
the dislocation embryos immediately develop from the vacancies in the vicinity of the indenter tip. Compared with those in dry indentation (case 2), the dislocation embryos beneath the indenter in wet indentation (case 1) are larger, and the atomic glides on the surface are more drastic as well. However, both cases seem to have the same glide direction, which is along the slip vectors associated with the FCC (111) surface. The more drastic dislocation
movement as seen in wet indentation is clearly contributed to the higher indentation force caused PD184352 (CI-1040) by the repulsive force between the indenter and the water molecules. Figure 4 Dislocations in the work material at 8-Å indentation depth for (a) case 1 and (b) case 2. However, for both 10 and 100 m/s speeds, the indentation force for dry indentation starts to overtake that for wet indentation when the indentation depth reaches 3.3 nm. This phenomenon can be attributed to the change of friction force between the indenter and the work material due to the addition of water. When the indentation depth is less than a critical value, the resultant reduction of indentation force is too small to compensate the resistant force of water molecules between the indenter and the work material. When the indentation depth is beyond the critical value, the beneficial tribological effect is sufficient to compensate the resistant force. As a result, the indentation force in the late stage for wet indentation is smaller than that for dry indentation. In addition, Figure 5 illustrates the effect of water on indentation force during the tool retraction process by comparing cases 1 and 2. For both wet and dry indentations, the indentation force decreases quickly at the beginning and reaches the equilibrium state at the retraction distance of about 0.7 nm.