Explant liver (n = 9), PBMC (n = 6) and plasma (n = 7) from nine

Explant liver (n = 9), PBMC (n = 6) and plasma (n = 7) from nine such patients undergoing liver transplantation were evaluated for HBV genomes by sensitive PCR/nucleic acid hybridization assay. Cases with HBV DNA in liver and PBMC were tested for covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA). HBV polymerase (P) amplicons were cloned, sequenced and both P and overlapping surface (S) gene

sequences were analysed. HBV DNA was detected in 43% (3/7) of plasma, 100% (9/9) of liver and 83% (5/6) of PBMC samples. HBV cccDNA was detected in all liver and one PBMC sample. Four patients had a clinical diagnosis of resistance. HBV P gene sequencing revealed 100% wild type (wt) in plasma (2/2), 83% wt in PBMC (5/6) but livers of 3/9 (33%) contained wt and 6/9 (66%) carried resistance to lamivudine AZD8186 and/or adefovir. The translated S gene revealed no changes affecting HBV antigenicity. Sequences from livers with antiviral resistant mutants revealed greater this website interpatient quasispecies diversity. Despite apparent HBV suppression, the liver continues to support HBV replication and extrahepatic HBV can be detected. PBMC may be a sanctuary for wt virus during antiviral therapy, while the liver harbours more drug-resistant viruses. Drug resistance correlates

with intrahepatic viral diversity.”
“In this work, we present the results of an investigation into the effectiveness of varying ammonium sulphide (NH4)(2)S concentrations in the passivation of n-type and p-type In0.53Ga0.47As. Samples were degreased and immersed in aqueous (NH4)(2)S solutions of concentrations 22%, 10%, 5%, or 1% for 20 min at 295 K, immediately prior to atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. Multi-frequency

capacitance-voltage (C-V) results on capacitor structures indicate that the lowest frequency dispersion over the bias range examined occurs for n-type and p-type devices treated with the 10% (NH4)(2)S GSK1210151A chemical structure solution. The deleterious effect on device behavior of increased ambient exposure time after removal from 10% (NH4)(2)S solution is also presented. Estimations of the interface state defect density (D-it) for the optimum 10% (NH4)(2)S passivated In0.53Ga0.47As devices extracted using an approximation to the conductance method, and also extracted using the temperature-modified high-low frequency C-V method, indicate that the same defect is present over n-type and p-type devices having an integrated D-it of similar to 2.5 x 10(12) cm(-2) (+/- 1 x 10(12) cm(-2)) with the peak density positioned in the middle of the In0.53Ga0.47As band gap at approximately 0.37 eV (+/- 0.03 eV) from the valence band edge. Both methods used for extracting D-it show very good agreement, providing evidence to support that the conductance method can be applied to devices incorporating high-k oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

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