The monolithic three-junction (3J) solar cells presently used in

The monolithic three-junction (3J) solar cells presently used in HCPV systems typically consist of two epitaxial III-V homojunctions, such as GaInP and GaInAs, grown on an active Ge substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The III-V bandgaps are chosen to match the currents generated in each junction and minimize the energy lost to thermalization of the electron-hole pairs generated,

see more subject to the constraint of approximate lattice matching. We propose using cells consisting of one or more CdTe-based II-VI homojunctions grown on large-area active Si substrates by high-throughput MBE or a less expensive high-vacuum deposition technique as an alternative to III-V based multijunction cells grown by -MOCVD. The bandgap of Si is more optimal than that of Ge for two-junction (2J) or 3J cells, and lattice mismatches affect the efficiencies of such cells only slightly, which allows greater freedom in the choice of bandgaps, and thus the potential for higher efficiencies. Also, such cells could be manufactured Akt inhibitor review at a much lower cost due to the larger area, much lower cost and superior mechanical properties of Si substrates as compared to Ge substrates. The much lower cell cost also would enable medium concentration PV systems that would require more cell area, but with simplified,

less expensive tracking and optics, resulting in lower overall system costs. Promising initial results from material-property measurements and single-junction and 2J CdZnTe/Si cell characterization results are given. Both the promise of the proposed technology and the challenges it faces are discussed. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3582902]“

Growing evidence suggests worse cardiac allograft vasculopathy and mortality in patients with asymptomatic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Debate continues about whether therapeutic intervention is warranted to avoid adverse outcomes. In this study we examine the course of individual episodes of untreated asymptomatic AMR on follow-up endomyocardial biopsy (EMB).

METHODS: Metabolism inhibitor The U.T.A.H. Cardiac Transplant Program database was queried for transplant recipients between 1985 and 2009 who survived beyond 1 year and had at least I episode of lone AMR with a follow-up EMB. All EMBs were screened for AMR by immunofluorescence and graded for severity. Data were analyzed based on time from transplant (early, <= 12 months; late, >12 months).

RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty-eight patients with a total of 15,448 biopsies qualified for the study. Average age at transplant was 46.7 years; 13% of the patients were female. Within the first year post-transplant, asymptomatic AMR was diagnosed in 13.6% of biopsies compared with 5.2% beyond 1 year. AMR resolved in 65% (early) vs 75% (late) on follow-up EMB.

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