We have reported earlier preliminary equilibrium binding affinities of compounds 1–3 indicating that these compounds bind selleck products more strongly to the h-Tel quadruplex sequence; in the earlier case a duplex sequence comprising an alternating GC eight base pair hairpin was used . In the present work these
measurements were repeated comparing ligand binding to the same h-Tel sequence but with a different duplex sequence 5′-d[CGA3T3C(CT)2GA3T3CG]-3′ as comparator. As indicated in Table 1 compound 1 binds potently to the h-Tel (Q) quadruplex (K = 0.83 × 107 M-1) and an order of magnitude less effectively to the duplex (D) sequence, with a Q/D ratio of GSK2126458 purchase 13.8. Very similar results were observed with the 3-acetylamino derivative 3 whereas the 2-acetylamino isomer 2 was both the most potent binder to h-Tel quadruplex and the buy SRT1720 weakest binder to duplex DNA, giving a more favourable Q/D ratio of 37.5. The 13-ethyl homologue 8 was a much weaker binder than
the close variant (1) to h-Tel quadruplex (K = 0.06 × 107 M-1) suggesting that steric perturbations imposed by the larger ethyl group compromised stacking interactions within the quadruplex structure (see Additional file 1 for sensorgrams). Quadruplex-ligand interaction was also explored by Circular Dichroism (CD). Far-UV CD spectra were collected on 4 μM samples of h-Tel in 110 mM K+ solution (100 mM KCl and 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer) at pH 7.0 and 298 K. The CD spectrum was characterised by a strong band at 295 nm with additional broad positive bands at
250 and 270 nm [12, 13]. The ability of 1 and the two N-acetyl compounds to bind to these folded structures in K+ solution is shown in Figure 4a. All three ligands induce stronger ellipticity at 290 nm and a negative filipin band at around 260 nm. These pronounced spectroscopic changes are consistent with the ligands perturbing the equilibrium in favour of the basket-type (2 + 2) anti-parallel quadruplex structure, which is the predominant species identified for the same sequence in Na+ solution (Figure 4d) [30–33]. The ligand-induced interconversion of structures is consistent with stabilisation of the complex through ligand contacts specific to the hydrophobic pocket created by the diagonal TTA loop over the terminal G-tetrad [12, 13]. Figure 4 Ligand-quadruplex interactions. a: CD spectra of ligands 1 (black hashed), 2 (red) and 3 (blue) at 4 μM in 110 mM of K+ at pH 7.0 using the h-Tel sequence 5′-d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3]-3′ are compared to the ligand free h-Tel (black) spectra. b: The ability of ligands 1, 2 and 3 to induce an anti-parallel conformation in the absence of K+ ions. c: The quadruplex stabilising effects of ligands 1, 2 and 3 was carried out by monitoring the h-Tel thermal unfolding at 290 nm.