To identify whether or not plasma total osteocalcin was independently associated with the development of T2DM, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward variable selection. Analysis was performed using SPSS (version 13.0; SPSS, Inc. Chicago, IL, USA), and p values of <0.05 were considered significant. Results We divided the study subjects according to glucose tolerance status, and compared the plasma total osteocalcin levels. The plasma
osteocalcin levels were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.001); however, no difference was noted in the osteocalcin levels between the NGT (18.4 ± 9.0 ng/ml) and pre-diabetes groups (19.1 ± 8.9 ng/ml). After the development of diabetes (15.3 ± 6.8 ng/ml), the plasma osteocalcin levels were decreased compared with the pre-diabetes group (Fig. 1). Next, we divided the subjects into tertiles
(lower, buy Repotrectinib middle, and upper) by plasma osteocalcin levels; the glucose and HbA1c levels varied inversely with the osteocalcin tertiles, and the insulin secretory capacity, including the AUC insulin/glucose, HOMA-B%, insulinogenic index, and disposition index and insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda’s, Stumvoll’s, and OGIS indices), increased with the osteocalcin tertiles. In addition, the plasma YM155 cell line adiponectin levels were increased with the osteocalcin tertiles; however, no difference was noted in the plasma leptin see more levels with the osteocalcin tertiles (Table 1). To determine whether or not plasma
osteocalcin level is independently associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, multiple linear regression analyses were performed. The plasma osteocalcin level was inversely associated with FPG and AUC glucose levels and positively associated with the disposition index and Stumvoll’s and OGIS indices after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and other adipokines including adiponectin and leptin levels (Table 2). To investigate the independent Fossariinae association between the osteocalcin level and diabetes, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The analysis included age, gender, BMI, fasting plasma glucose level, and plasma adiponectin, leptin, and osteocalcin levels. Our results indicated that age and the fasting plasma glucose level appeared to be independently associated with the development of diabetes; the plasma osteocalcin level was inversely associated with the development of diabetes (OR, 0.955; 95% CI, 0.919–0.994, p = 0.023; Table 3). Fig. 1 Osteocalcin levels (means ± SDs) by glucose tolerance status. NGT normal glucose tolerance, Pre-DM pre-diabetes, DM diabetes. To convert osteocalcin levels to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 0.