This situation is also likely to be quite different after poisoni

This situation is also likely to be quite different after poisoning with OP nerve agents (e.g. sarin) in which there are no solvents and the onset is much faster, making it likely that AChE inhibition is responsible selleck for all toxic features (Maxwell et al., 2006). Toxicokinetic and dynamic studies indicated that the differences were not due to variation in absorption alone. Red cell AChE activity in pigs poisoned with dimethoate EC40 and dimethoate AI were identical, despite very different poisoning severity. This discrepancy raises questions about the usefulness of this biomarker in OP pesticide poisoning (Eddleston et al., 2009a,

Eddleston et al., 2009b and Eyer et al., 2010). Plasma dimethoate and omethoate concentrations were similar in the first few hours after poisoning with dimethoate EC40, dimethoate AI, and dimethoate AI + cyclohexanone, when differences in toxicity were apparent. The dimethoate and omethoate concentrations after poisoning with dimethoate AI then decreased. The dimethoate concentration after poisoning with the new dimethoate EC formulation

was markedly less than with the other formulations; however, the omethoate concentration was significantly higher and red cell AChE more inhibited, suggesting BIBW2992 manufacturer again that pesticide toxicokinetic differences were not the basis for the differences in toxicity. Plasma cyclohexanol concentrations were substantially lower after poisoning with cyclohexanone alone compared to dimethoate EC40 or dimethoate + cyclohexanone. Plasma cyclohexanone concentrations were also lower after cyclohexanone compared to dimethoate EC40 but less so than its metabolite. These differences

suggest that the presence of dimethoate alters metabolism of the solvent; it is known that dimethoate induces cytochrome P450 activity and its own metabolism (Buratti and Testai, 2007). There was little evidence for dimethoate increasing the absorption of cyclohexanone. The mechanism for the effect of cyclohexanone on dimethoate toxicity is unclear. Both dimethoate AI and cyclohexanone caused a fall in systemic vascular resistance; it is possible that their effects are additive. Alternatively, selleck products the solvent may alter the distribution of the dimethoate and thereby alter toxicity. Further studies are required to address this point. We used arterial lactate concentration as a marker of global toxicity. Its substantial increase in pigs poisoned with dimethoate and cyclohexanone probably represents a combination of tissue hypoxia, hepatic dysfunction reducing lactate clearance, and catecholamine-induced changes in muscle metabolism. The main limitation of this study is that it was performed in anaesthetised minipigs and not humans. An anaesthetised minipig is clearly different to self-poisoned humans and we cannot be sure that the results are a “true reflection” of the human situation.

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