These two (including related C jejuni subgroups) are associated

These two (including related C. jejuni subgroups) are associated with specific genetic markers. CC 21 learn more isolates as well as the vast majority of other C. jejuni isolates are positive for cj1365c (cjj81176-1367/1371), cj1585c, cj1321-cj1326, fucP, cj0178, and cj0755/cfrA (Additional file 2: Table S2) [18, 19]. In contrast to that, MLST-CC 45 isolates and the related isolates of the MLST-CC 22, 42, and 283 are predominantly check details negative for these marker genes; with the exception

that MLST-CC 22 and 42 isolates harbor cj1365c. In these isolates the oxidoreductase gene cj1585c is replaced by the tripartite anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide oxidoreductase dmsA to ā€“D facilitating an alternative anaerobic metabolic pathway. Additionally this isolate group has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of ggt and ansB. The cj1365c-positive isolates of MLST-CC 22 and 42 are also cstII-positive, whereas MLST-CC 45 and 282 isolates have no LOS-sialyltransferase genes [18, 19]. Theses isolates positive for ggt but negative for fucP could be significantly associated with a higher rate of hospitalizations and bloody diarrhea and bear apparently a higher pathogenic potential for humans [27]. There are also smaller evolutionary intermediate isolate groups, which are for example positive for dmsA, ansB, cj1365c and fucP but not for ggt[18, 19]. Furthermore, MLST-ST 21 isolates have a variation of TLP7, which is expressed

as dimer [18, 41]. In this group Flavopiridol datasheet of isolates the most in vitro hyperinvasive strains can be found [42]. These isolates are mostly responsible for outbreaks associated with cattle [17]. We have shown in this study that biomarker shifts can be used to discriminate not only between the vast

majority of C. jejuni isolates and this C. jejuni subgroup with an extended amino acid metabolism (ggt +), which was shown to have a higher pathogenic potential for humans [27], we were even able to discriminate between MLST-CC 45/282 isolates and MLST-CC 22/42 isolates. MLST-CC 22/42 isolates positive for the LOS-sialyltransferase Thymidylate synthase cstII could be associated with GBS and higher host cell invasiveness [19]. Furthermore, we were able to identify another biomarker ion (m/zā€‰=ā€‰5303) that differentiates the subset of MLST ST 21 isolates associated with the dimeric TLP7m+c-variant. It should be noted that the biomarker ions are not based on the expression of the marker genes used, as the proteins encoded in the marker genes are of entirely different sizes than the observed masses, but there is an obvious evolutionary association between the presence of specific marker genes and some of the biomarker ions. Conclusions In conclusion, our study demonstrates that it is possible to discriminate specific subtypes within the C. jejuni species that have a different metabolism and different clinical relevance even using smear spectra. Phyloproteomics corresponds only partial to phylogenetics.

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