The surface area of the COG was calculated so that 95% of the COG

The surface area of the COG was calculated so that 95% of the COG displacements were inside the ellipsoid, formed by sagittal and frontal COG displacements. Angular displacement was calculated according

to the following equation (Neurocom, Operator Manual, 2000): where FCOG is the sagittal displacement of the COG from the vertical line formed by lateral Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical malleoli and the point equal to approximately 55% of participant’s total height (HCOG).The COG oscillations in the frontal plane were not analyzed as they are “less meaningful” for postural control during quiet stance in healthy individuals (e.g., Winter 1995). Overall, an increase of the COG oscillations was considered as reducing postural Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stability, while decreased COG oscillations were evidence of postural stabilization, or improved postural stability. A mixed two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with appropriate t-test was used to analyze the influence of experimental condition

(viewing, gaze, or gaze/viewing) and angle (0°, 25°, or −25°) on the COG parameters. Results Manipulating the gaze, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical viewing, and both gaze and viewing conditions influenced upright postural stability in all participants with significant overall ANOVA effect (F(4,114) = 4.25; P = 0.003). The averaged means (±SE) of the parameters characterizing the COG oscillations are presented in Fig. 3. There was a significant effect of experimental condition on HDAC inhibitor mechanism amplitude of the COG displacement (F(2,57) = 5.05; P = 0.009), surface area (F(2,57) = 4.62; P = 0.014), and maximum forward COG shift (F(2,57) = 3.04; P = 0.01). However, no Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical differences between conditions were found in

the maximum backward shift of the COG. Overall, the amplitude of the COG oscillations was decreased by 32% (from 1.09 to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 0.82 cm, P = 0.012) when participants stood with gaze fixated on a target, presented at the neutral position (00), with no difference found in the COG surface area, or forward and backward body alignment. Figure 3 The averaged means (±SE) of the COG parameters: amplitude of displacement (A); surface area (B); maximum angular shift forward (C); and backward (D). The means identify the parameter in neutral condition (dashed circle) and their changes due to … Altering angular presentation of the target Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase did not result in any significant overall effects on COG parameters (e.g., amplitude of the COG displacement F(2,114) = 0,69; P = 0.501).When gaze angle deviated from the neutral position, the following significant changes were found (Fig. 3A–D, open circles). Observing the character located below eye level (angle −25°) resulted in reducing the amplitude by 21% (from 0.82 to 0.64 cm, P = 0.031) and surface area by 27% (from 1.2 to 0.87cm2, P = 0.041) of the COG displacement. The same parameters had a nonsignificant tendency to reduce under gaze angle +25°. No difference was found in maximum forward and backward angular displacement with either gaze deviation. Altering the viewing angle (Fig.

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