The results were plotted according to Lineweaver

The results were plotted according to Lineweaver Inhibitor Library purchase & Burk (1934)

graphic method. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to determine significant differences between variables. Differences with a probability value of <0.05 were considered significant and all data were reported as mean ± sd. After fermentation time of 48 h, there was not detected a significant increase in phenolic content, whereas the fungal biomass demonstrated an important increased until 96 h of fermentation (Fig. 1). The glucosamine, a constituent of chitin, an insoluble linear polymer composed of α-1,4 acetylglucosamine bonds, was determined to estimate the multiplication in fungal SSF (Schmidt & Furlong, 2012). At 96 h, 8.8 mgglucosamine/g were obtained from fermented biomass, showing that the R. oryzae fungus can grow using rice bran as a carbon source. The phenolic compounds content at the beginning of fermentation was of about 2.4 mg/g and at the end of 120 h was of 5.1 mg/g, resulting in an increase of over 110% (Fig. 1). Rice phenolics include derivatives of benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic acid and diferulates. These are commonly present in a chain form, and are normally components of complex structures such as hydrolyzable tannins and

lignins, and linked to the cell wall structural components such as cellulose, lignin and proteins by ester check details linkages (Zhang et al., 2010). The more soluble phenolics are compartmentalised within MYO10 the cell vacuoles, and they are in free or conjugated form, while the insoluble phenolics are connected to structures

in the cell walls, esterified with arabinose or galactose residues of hemicellulose or pectic components (Mira et al., 2009 and Mira et al., 2008). There are two ways in which phenolic compounds can be formed; from the decomposition of the linkages between lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose or by producing a part of rice bran oil (Pourali et al., 2010). In the case of rice bran fermentation, the increased phenolic acids content is mainly caused by the cleavage of compounds complexed with lignin (Schmidt & Furlong, 2012). Filamentous fungi produce a range of enzymes required to break the lignin, and these microorganisms have two extracellular systems, one that produces carbohydrolisases and another ligninolytic oxidative system which degrades phenyl rings, increasing the free phenolic content (Martins et al., 2011 and Sánchez, 2009). Supplementary data 1 and 2 show the calibration parameters and the separation of the group of phenolic acids that were analysed using an isocratic gradient elution. One can observe that the content of rice bran phenolic acids varied with the autoclaving treatment (time zero) but the major change in the content of these compounds occurred with fermentation (Table 1). Among phenolic compounds the p-coumaric acid was the only one that did not display a significant increase (p < 0.

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