The deficiency of light atomic species such as lithium in LiMn(2)O(4) thin films occurs as a HKI-272 concentration result of the different behavior of the species during plume expansion and the deposition of the film at elevated deposition temperatures. The plasma plume evolution in vacuum and 20 Pa oxygen pressure are studied using two spectroscopic techniques:
emission spectroscopy and plume imaging. Higher velocities and a wider spatial distribution of lithium atoms are observed in vacuum when compared with manganese and oxygen species. Plume species are slowed down due to collisions with gas molecules when ablating LiMn(2)O(4) in an oxygen atmosphere. As a result, a strong deceleration of the plasma front occurs, and the effect is more pronounced for the light species, e.g., Cyclopamine molecular weight Li. Comparing the spatial manganese and lithium distribution within the plasma, the lithium species are again scattered into a wider angular range. These similar spatial distributions of Li atoms detected in the pressure range between 10(-4) and 20 Pa suggest that it is not possible to achieve a congruent lithium transfer to a growing film if the target contains heavier elements besides lithium. The general implications for the ablation of materials containing a combination of light and heavy elements are that as-grown films are inherently deficient with respect to
the content of the light elements. If the mass ratio between the light and the heavy elements is not too different, is should be possible to find a set of deposition parameters which will result in the growth of a film with the desired composition.”
“Background: Outcomes following single-event see more multilevel surgery of the upper extremity for children with cerebral palsy have not been well described in the literature. Since 1996, all children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy at our institution thought to
be candidates for upper extremity surgery have had serial Shriners Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation performed for both clinical decision making and outcome assessment. The goal of the current study was to determine the functional outcomes, as described by the Shriners Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation, following single-event multilevel surgery of the upper extremity in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
Methods: The study design was a retrospective, case-control series. The case group consisted of forty children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy who underwent upper-extremity single-event multilevel surgery. The control group consisted of twenty-six children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy who had not received any upper-extremity interventions. The spontaneous functional analysis, dynamic positional analysis, and grasp-release analysis sections of the Shriners Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation were compared between the two groups.
Results: The operative and nonoperative groups were comparable with respect to age (p = 0.09), sex (p = 0.