“The ability of CuI to be doped p-type via the introduction of native defects has been investigated using first-principles pseudopotential calculations based on density functional theory. The Cu vacancy has a lower formation energy than any of the other native defects, which include
I vacancy (V(I)), Cu interstitial (Cu(i)), I interstitial (I(i)), Cu antisite (Cu(I)), and I antisite (I(Cu)). Combined with its shallow acceptor level, it offers sufficient hole concentrations in CuI. The natural band alignments as compared to zinc-blende ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe have also been calculated in order to further identify the p-type dopability of CuI. It is found that CuI has a relatively high valence band maximum and conduction band minimum, which also makes it easy to dope CuI p-type in terms of the this website doping limit rule. In addition, the small effective mass of the light hole-about 0.303m(0)-can provide high mobility and p-type conductivity VX-809 concentration in CuI. All of these results make CuI an ideal candidate for native p-type materials (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3633220]“
“New electron deficient tin(IV)
porphyrins were used as efficient catalysts for the reaction of 4,4′-methylene-bis-(4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI), with L-leucine anhydride cyclodipeptide (LAC) and polyethyleneglycol-400 (PEG-400) and the results were compared with those obtained in the presence of a commercial catalyst, dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL). Molar ratio of catalysts to MDI, polymerization reaction time, viscosity, and yield of the resulting poly(ether-urethane-urea)s (PEUU) were compared in the presence of different catalysts. The rate of N = C = O conversion in the presence of each catalysts under the same reaction conditions was also compared and followed by GSI-IX Proteases inhibitor FT-IR N = C = O absorption band. FT-IR, GPC, and viscosity studies have shown that tin(IV) porphyrins afford higher viscosity and reaction progress. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
determination is usually described as the result of the stochastic dynamics of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) reaching one of multiple steady-states each of which corresponds to a specific decision. However, the fate of a cell is determined in finite time suggesting the importance of transient dynamics in cellular decision making. Here we consider cellular decision making as resulting from first passage processes of regulatory proteins and examine the effect of transient dynamics within the initial lysis-lysogeny switch of phage lambda. Importantly, the fate of an infected cell depends, in part, on the number of coinfecting phages. Using a quantitative model of the phage lambda GRN, we find that changes in the likelihood of lysis and lysogeny can be driven by changes in phage co-infection number regardless of whether or not there exists steady-state bistability within the GRN.