Saccades are initiated if and only if the activity of movement ne

Saccades are initiated if and only if the activity of movement neurons reaches a specific and constant threshold activation level independent of the response time 7, 9 and 11]. Fixation neurons are active during fixation and exhibit decreased discharge preceding saccades 12 and 13]. Neurons that participate in controlling movement generation must fulfill two criteria. First, neurons must be active differently when movements are generated or suppressed. Second, the change in activity on canceled trials must occur before SSRT. Some FEF and SC neurons fulfill both of these criteria. On trials where the monkeys are able to respond to the stop signal and

inhibit the saccade, the activity of movement neurons stops increasing and starts to decline before the SSRT elapsed. The likely source of this inhibition is the simultaneous increased activity of fixation cells that also occurs before the SSRT elapses [2]. While our knowledge of response inhibition in the oculomotor system is fairly advanced, we do not understand inhibitory control of skeletomotor movements nearly as well. This is an important unresolved question, because there are a number of significant differences between the oculomotor Ganetespib datasheet and skeletomotor system both in the structure and complexity of their plant and their respective control systems. An important current

research aim has been therefore to investigate the mechanisms of response inhibition of skeletomotor movements. A crucial question is where exactly

in the brain the inhibition of skeletomotor movement preparation takes place and if the mechanism of this inhibition is similar to what is found in the oculomotor system. On multiple levels of the oculomotor system, there are neurons that serve as an inhibitory gate for producing eye movements: in premotor structures (fixation cells in FEF, SC), in the output of the basal ganglia (substantia nigra pars reticulate; SNr), and in the brainstem saccade generator (omnipause neurons) [14]. Functionally similar levels of the skeletomotor Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) system have been recently investigated and different hypothesis regarding inhibitory control mechanisms have been suggested. Pyramidal cells in primary motor cortex (M1) begin to discharge before the EMG burst in agonist muscles and movement onset 15 and 16]. The activation of corticospinal neurons is necessary for initiating and generating skeletomotor movements and stopping such a movement requires fundamentally that the activity in corticospinal neurons is either suppressed or rendered ineffective (Figure 1). M1 and premotor cortex (PMC) seem therefore a likely site of inhibitory control of movement preparation. Application of GABA antagonists to PMC reduced the ability of monkeys to withhold well-trained arm movements to visual targets [17].

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