On laparotomy, there was caecal perforation with faecal peritonitis (Fig 2). There was marked dilatation of the caecum, ascending colon and transverse colon up to the level of splenic flexure of the colon. The descending colon was collapsed and there was no mass or band causing the obstruction. The dilated transverse colon was followed and it became evident that it was entering the pleural cavity through a postero-lateral this website defect in the diaphragm (Fig 3). A dilated loop of transverse colon was found in the chest cavity with obstruction at the level of the defect. This loop along with its mesentery
was viable and brought down into the abdominal cavity by enlarging the defect in diaphragm (Fig 4). The defect was primarily repaired in one layer with interrupted sutures of No-1 prolene and a left intercostal tube drain (ICD) with negative pressure was placed. The caecal perforation was managed by intracaecal placement of a Foley urethral catheter of 20 French to establish a tube caecostomy. In the postoperative period, ICD was removed on the 5th postoperative day. The patient developed mild infection at the laparotomy wound which was treated by conservative regimen. learn more The caecostomy tube was removed after 3 weeks and the patient was subsequently discharged from the hospital. Figure 1 Chest X-ray showing free air under diaphragm (single arrow head) along with the
Bochdalek hernia on the right side (double arrow head). Figure 2 Intraoperative picture showing markedly dilated caecum with perforation temporarily controlled by silk sutures. Figure 3 Intraoperative picture showing transverse colon entering the posterolateral defect in the left diaphragm, B: Bochdalek hernia, S: Spleen, C: Transverse Colon. Figure 4 Intraoperative picture of the defect having been enlarged to reduce the hernia. Discussion Although the initial records of diaphragmatic hernia date back as far very as the 1690s , the improper fusion of the postero-lateral foramina of the diaphragm was first described by Bochdalek in 1848 [7, 8]. The true incidence of asymptomatic Bochdalek hernia remains unknown and ranges from 1/7,000 to 6% [7, 9].
There is also reported predominance on the right side in asymptomatic cases . Undiagnosed patients may never be identified as having Bochdalek hernia . The left-sided presentation in our patient is in accord with the majority of cases reported in the literature. During the formation of the diaphragm, the pleural and coelomic cavities remain in continuity by means of the S63845 pleuroperitoneal canal. The posterolateral communication is the last to be closed by the developing diaphragm. Failure of the diaphragmatic development leaves a posterolateral defect symptomatic mostly on the left side. The defective closure of the pleuroperitoneal canal leads to three types of congenital hernias: the posterolateral (Bochdalek hernia), anterolateral and pars sternalis.