o the establishment of neuronal phenotypes within the hypothalamic area. Particularly, the transcrip tion factors Otp, Sim1, Sim2, as well as Brn2 have impor tant roles in hypothalamic architecture. The absence of either of these transcription fac tors during embryonic development leads to anatomical and molecular selleck chem hypothalamic impairment and conse quently, to the complete lack of expression of specific hypothalamic peptides. However, the signalling pathways regulating the activity of these transcription factors and their target genes have not been established. To obtain some insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating Trh expression and or TRH neuron growth during development, we determined elements of the gene expression profile of fetal hypothalamic cells enriched in TRH neurons using the DNA microarray technology.
Our approach does not necessarily identify genes relevant for birth or migration, but should capture genes impor tant for late developmental events involving TRH neuron specification and function. Here, we report that FACS enriched TRH neurons, previously cultured for 3 DIV, can be successfully Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries used to characterize elements of their transcriptome. The database generated from this analysis allowed us to identify some transcripts, including several transcription factors, as novel candidates to regulate hypothalamic Trh gene expression or TRH neuron growth during the terminal phase of development. Among the transcripts enriched in the GFP cells, we identified three transcription factors whose expression has not been previously reported within the hypothala mus in vivo.
These transcripts include the zinc Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries finger domain containing transcription factor Klf4, the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries TGFb inducible early growth response transcription fac tor, and the activating transcription factor 3, these are important regulators of cell differ entiation and proliferation in different systems. Recently, these transcription factors have been identified as NGF responsive immediate early genes during PC12 cell differ entiation. Experiments performed in our group have corrobo rated the relevance of Klf4 for Trh gene expression. Klf4 mRNA is expressed in the embryonic rat hypothalamus, coincident with the establishment of the TRH phenotype, in the neonatal rat hypothalamus, Klf4 is expressed in the PVN, the source of hypophysiotropic TRH.
Klf4 binds to the Trh promoter either in vitro or in vivo during fetal hypothalamic development. In addition, Klf4 regulates hypothalamic Trh promoter activity Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries both in vitro and in vivo during development. Accordingly, Trh expression is down regulated at E15 in the hypothalamus of Klf4 defi cient mice, resulting in diminished bioactive peptide level. These data demonstrate that Klf4 is a key molecule within the differentiation program of the hypothalamic TRH phenotype. in which in addition to transcription factors, epige netic modifications and non coding RNA expression play pivotal roles. Entinostat The analysis of the transcriptome of hypothalamic Oligomycin A solubility TRH