Method: We analysed 294 fetuses with CHDs and 416 control fetuses

Method: We analysed 294 fetuses with CHDs and 416 control fetuses without any abnormalities identified from February 2010 through October 2011 in this hospital-based case-control study. Participating mothers were interviewed to determine whether they had been infected with “”influenza”" during the early pregnancy period 5-Fluoracil or had used any medicine (TCM, Western medicine) to treat influenza. A logistic regression model was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs while controlling

for potential confounders.

Results: There were significant associations between maternal influenza and CHDs in the aggregate (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.28) and specific subtypes, namely septal defects (AOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.26) and conotruncal defects (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.51). Maternal medication use (i.e. TCM or Western medicine) in the setting of influenza tended to decrease these associations.

Conclusions: Maternal influenza during second-third months of pregnancy increased the risk for CHDs, with septal defects and conotruncal defects in particular being observed. The use of medication for influenza might attenuate such associations.”

To evaluate

the ability of an allometric 3/4 Power Model combined with the Galveston Formula (Galveston-3/4 BMS-777607 in vitro PM Formula) to predict fluid resuscitation requirements in children suffering burn injuries in comparison with the frequently used Parkland Formula and Galveston Formula using the Du Bois formula for surface area estimation (Galveston-DB Formula).


To demonstrate that the Galveston-3/4 PM Formula is clinically equivalent to the Galveston-DB

Formula for the estimation of fluid requirements in pediatric burn injury cases.


Fluid resuscitation requirements differ in children suffering burn injuries when compared to adults. The Parkland Formula works well for normal weight adults but underestimates fluid requirements when indiscriminately applied to pediatric burn patients. The Galveston-DB Formula accounts for the change in body composition with age by using a body surface area (BSA) model but requires the measurement of height. The allometric model, using an exponent of 3/4, accounts for the see more dependence of a physiological variable on body mass without requiring height measurement and can be applied to estimate fluid requirements after burn injury in children.


Comparisons were performed between the hourly calculated fluid requirements for the first 8 h following 20%, 40%, and 60% BSA burns using the Parkland Formula, the Galveston-DB Formula and Galveston-3/4 PM Formula for children 2-23 kg.


In children less than 23 kg, the fluid requirements predicted by the Galveston-3/4 PM Formula are well correlated with those predicted by the Galveston-DB Formula (R2 = 0.997, P < 0.0001) and are much better than of the predictions made with the Parkland Formula, especially for children < 10 kg.

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