is a


is a LY2835219 mw natural product that has strong taxoid-like properties but binds to a distinct site on beta-tubulin in the microtubule (MT) lattice. At elevated concentrations, it generates MTs that are resistant to depolymerization, and it induces a conformational state indistinguishable from taxoid-treated MTs. In this study, we describe the effect of low-dose laulimalide on various stages of the cell cycle and compare these effects to docetaxel as a representative of taxoid stabilizers. No evidence of MT bundling in interphase was observed with laulimalide, in spite of the fact that MTs are stabilized at low dose. Cells treated with laulimalide enter mitosis but arrest at prometaphase by generating multiple asters that coalesce into supernumerary poles and interfere with the integrity of the metaphase plate. Cells with a preformed bipolar spindle exist under heightened tension under laulimalide treatment, and chromosomes rapidly shear from the plate, even though the bipolar spindle is well-preserved. Docetaxel generates a similar phenotype for HeLa cells entering mitosis, but when treated at metaphase, cells undergo chromosomal fragmentation and demonstrate reduced centromere dynamics, as expected for a taxoid. Our results

suggest that laulimalide represents a new class of molecular probe for investigating MT-mediated events, such as kinetochore-MT interactions, KPT-8602 ic50 which may reflect the location of the ligand binding site within the interprotofilament groove.”
“BACKGROUND. Currently, histology is used as the endpoint to define success with photodynamic selleck chemical therapy (PDT) in patients with high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Recurrences despite ‘successful’ ablation are common. The role of biomarkers in assessing response to PDT remains undefined. The objectives of the current study were 1) to assess biomarkers in a prospective cohort of patients with HGD/mucosal cancer before and after PDT and 2) to correlate biomarker status after PDT with histology.\n\nMETHODS.

Patients who underwent PDT for HGD/mucosal cancer were studied prospectively. All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 4-quadrant biopsies every centimeter, endoscopic mucosal resection of visible nodules, and endoscopic ultrasound. Cytology samples were obtained by using standard cytology brushes. Biomarkers were assessed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The biomarkers that were assessed included loss of 9p21 (site of the p16 gene) and 17p13.1 (site of the p53 gene) loci; gains of the 8q24(c-myc), 17q (HER2-neu), and 20q13 loci; and multiple gains. Patients received PDT 48 hours after the administration of sodium porfimer. Demographic and clinical variables were collected prospectively Patients were followed with endoscopy and repeat cytology for biomarkers. The McNemar test was used to compare biomarker proportions before and after PDT.\n\nRESULTS.

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