In survey t 1, details on health status for 119 of 125 subjects w

In survey t 1, details on health status for 119 of 125 subjects were available. Of these subjects, selleck screening library 38 (=31.9 %) reported knee complaints in the last 12 months (group k2) and 81 subjects (=68.1 %) comprised the “no complaints”-group (n2). The result of the Mann–Whitney U test was similar to survey t 0 showing no significant differences (medians in KU55933 solubility dmso groups k2 and n2 were −69.0 and −49.5 min, Mann–Whitney U = 1,355.0, p = 0.294 two tailed). Again, age, years in trade, and level of exposure seemed to have no impact on the assessment behaviour

in both groups. With respect to any musculoskeletal complaints in the last 12 months, we found similar results in both surveys (t 0, p = 0.750; t 1, p = 0.835). Discussion Validity Regorafenib order of self-reports on knee loading The present study showed two different aspects of self-reported knee load: good to acceptable quality in identifying knee

postures but mostly poor to very poor quality in quantifying the load. These conclusions are supported by related studies on several musculoskeletal risk factors (Descatha et al. 2009; Stock et al. 2005; Unge et al. 2005) and knee loading in particular (characteristics of the referred studies are shown in Appendix C in Supplementary Material): In a Finnish study on forest industry workers, Viikari-Juntura et al. (1996) described a poor correlation between observed and self-reported amount of kneeling and squatting (Spearman’s ρ = 0.42, p < 0.001). Hence, they determined self-reports to be helpful in identifying high exposure groups but to be inappropriate in Resminostat quantifying the exposure. Their results were based on the direct workplace observations of 36 workers, compared

with self-reports on the exposure of an average work shift from 2,756 workers. Baty et al. (1986) examined working postures of 46 nurses by observation and registration of major body postures every 15 s. At the end of the work shift, participants were asked to assess the amount of time spent in several postures. For kneeling and squatting, a good agreement between observed and self-reported occurrence was found (22/23 and 10/11 agreements, respectively), while the nurses overestimated their duration of kneeling and squatting four times on average. It should be kept in mind that kneeling and squatting postures occurred only infrequently. In a Dutch study, 35 mechanical repairmen were observed at the workplace and asked to keep a log every hour to assess exposure to several musculoskeletal risk factors (e.g. kneeling/squatting) for a whole work shift (Burdorf and Laan 1991). Subjects were able to assess the occurrence of kneeling/squatting activities quite well, but the percentage of daily work time in these postures was slightly underreported. In a German study, task analyses on 25 workers were carried out using an observational method (Klußmann et al. 2010).

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