Here, we couple a simple primary production model with nondestructive estimates of taxon-specific biomass on subtidal reefs off Santa Barbara, California to produce a 4-year time series of net primary production by intact assemblages of understory macroalgae in giant kelp forests off Santa Barbara, California, USA. Daily bottom irradiance varied significantly throughout the year, and algal assemblages MK-2206 price were on average exposed to saturating irradiance for only 1.3–4.5 h per day, depending on the time of year. Despite these variable light-limiting conditions, biomass rather than irradiance explained the vast majority of variation observed in daily NPP at all times of the year. Measurements of peak
biomass in spring and summer proved
to be good predictors of NPP for the entire year, explaining as much as 76% of the observed click here variation. In contrast, bottom irradiance was a poor predictor of NPP, explaining <10% of the variation in NPP when analyzed seasonally and ~2% when evaluated annually. Our finding that annual NPP by macroalgal assemblages can be predicted from a single, nondestructive measurement of biomass should prove useful for developing time series data that are necessary to evaluate natural and anthropogenic changes in NPP by one of the world's most productive ecosystems. "
“The biosynthesis of nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 acids (PUFAs) in phytoplankton is influenced by environmental temperature. We investigated the potential of climate warming to alter lipid dynamics of Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kütz. by comparing lipid and fatty acid (FA) profiles as well as FA metabolism (using [1-14C] acetate) at 20°C and 28°C. We documented an overall decline (53%–37%) in the proportion of n-3 PUFA (in particular, of α-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3n-3]), and a concomitant increase in saturated fatty
acids (SAFAs) in total lipids (TLs) at 28°C, consistent with enhanced incorporation of radioactivity from [1-14C] acetate into total 16:0, 18:1, and decreased incorporation into 18:2 and 18:3 FA (from 36% to 22% of the total) at 28°C. Glycerophospholipids were also affected by warming; ALA and stearidonic acids (SDAs; 18:4n-3) both decreased (by 13% and 15%, respectively) in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and (by 24% and 20%, respectively) in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The characteristic FA in phosphatidylglycerol (PG; 16:1n-13t) increased (by 22%) at 28°C. The activities of desaturases, which add double bonds to FA moieties, comprised the major suite of reactions affected by the temperature increase in TL and polar lipid (PL) classes. Climate modelers predict an increase in the number of extreme heat days in summer at temperate latitudes, with parallel projected increases in water temperatures of shallow water bodies. Our results suggest that the overall decrease in the essential n-3 FA ALA in S.