Furthermore, the oral administration of ginsenoside Rb2 prior to

Furthermore, the oral administration of ginsenoside Rb2 prior to infection of mice with hemagglutinating virus of Japan protected the infected mice from severe acute lung infection. This effect was shown to be due to antiviral activity of Rb2 as well as an enhancement of mucosal immunity by the compound [26]. Interestingly, a recent study showed that ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1, as well as red ginseng extract, exhibited antiviral activity against hepatitis A virus,

which is classified in the Picornaviridae family together with Enteroviruses [27]. However, there have been no previous reports on the antiviral activity of ginsenosides against other viruses included in Picornaviridae. In the current study, we

show that ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have significant antiviral activity against CVB3 and HRV3 Hydroxychloroquine infection, and thus, considering their potential adjuvanticity, Y-27632 cost these compounds may be effective in eliminating CVB3 and HRV3 in infected hosts. It is believed that CVB3 is an etiological agent causing myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, and outbreaks of CVB3 infection occur worldwide annually [28]. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic agents against CVB3, and only ribavirin has been shown to have weak antiviral activity against CVB3 infection [29], [30] and [31]. Similarly, no therapeutics are available for the treatment of HRV infection, and most associated treatments function only to reduce the symptoms of the infection. Because of the challenges associated with the development of appropriate vaccines as a means of controlling rhinovirus infection, mainly due to the genetic variability of rhinoviruses, most research efforts toward combating rhinovirus infection have been focused on the development of effective antiviral drugs. A great variety of compounds and compound classes Fenbendazole have been shown to exhibit antirhinovirus

activity in vitro, but few have been found to be effective at the clinical level. The antiviral activities of whole extracts produced from Uncaria tomentosa, Guettarda platypoda [32], rhizome of Tamus communis [33], Calendula arvensis [34], root of Allium sativum [35], Zingiber officinale [36], and Eleutherococcus senticosus [37] have been reported; however, antiviral activities of ginsenosides and even of ginseng against HRV have not yet been reported. Pleconaril is an orally administrable small-molecule inhibitor of human picornavirus replication. The compound is known to be integrated into a hydrophobic pocket within the major coat protein of viruses including human Picornaviridae, and to inhibit the correct functioning of this protein. Consequently, pleconaril inhibits the attachment of some viruses to their cellular receptors and blocks the viral uncoating process [38] and [39].

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