Freeze-dried doxorubicin-loaded micelles were dissolved in 4 mL o

Freeze-dried doxorubicin-loaded micelles were dissolved in 4 mL of a DMSO and methanol mixture (1:1), and the absorbance was measured at 480 nm using a UV-1601 spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The drug loading content (DLC) is defined as the ratio of mass of the drug encapsulated within the micelles to the total mass of drug-loaded micelles, while the entrapment efficiency (EE) is the ratio check details of mass of drug loaded into the micelles to the mass of drug initially added. The DLC and EE were calculated according to the following equations: (1) (2) In vitro drug release study The drug

release experiment was carried out in vitro. A doxorubicin-loaded micelle solution previously prepared by dialysis was used for release analysis. This solution was introduced into the dialysis membrane. Subsequently, the dialysis membrane was placed in a 200-mL beaker with 100 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). This

beaker was placed on a magnetic stirrer with a stirring speed of 100 rpm at 37°C. At suitable intervals, 3 mL samples were taken from the release medium and an equivalent volume of fresh medium was added. The concentration of doxorubicin in each sample was measured by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry at 480 nm. Cytotoxicity analysis Human colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) JNJ-26481585 ic50 and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). DLD-1

cells were cultured and maintained in Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640) medium, A-1331852 clinical trial whereas V79 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM). Both cell lines were supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin and maintained at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO2/95% air atmosphere. Bcl-w The impact of the blank micelles on cell viability was assessed using V79 cells. Cultured cells maintained in DMEM were seeded in 96-well culture plates at 4 × 104 cells per well and incubated for 24 h. The cells were then treated with increasing concentrations of blank micelles ranging from 31.25 to 500 μg · mL−1 and incubated for an additional 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO2/95% air atmosphere. Next, 20 μL of Alamar Blue® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was introduced to every well, and the cells were incubated for a further 4 h. The absorbance of each sample was measured at 570 nm with a microplate reader (Varioskan Flash, Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Cell viability was determined using the following equation: (3) The cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin-loaded micelles was determined using the Alamar blue assay. DLD-1 cells were seeded in 96-well culture plates at 2 × 104 cells per well and incubated for 48 h at 37°C in 5% CO2/95% air atmosphere. After the medium was removed, the cells were treated with 200 μL of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 1.56, 0.19, and 0.09 μg · mL−1 of free doxorubicin and doxorubicin-loaded micelles, respectively.

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