Finally, an experimental link between sublethal activation of apoptotic pathways and LB formation has been suggested by Hashimoto et al,116 who showed that release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria into the cytosol may also function as a stimulator for check details oc-synuclcin aggregation. Environmental toxins The seminal study by Langston et al99 on .MPTP as the causative agent for a PD-like syndrome has triggered numerous studies on the role of environmental toxins in the pathophysiology of PD. Since MPTP inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, a defect in this protein has been investigated in cases of sporadic PD. In 1990, Schapira et al117
showed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that complex I activity is indeed decreased in the SNpc of patients suffering from sporadic PD. Environmental toxins, particularly herbicides and pesticides that inhibit complex Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical I activity, such as rotenone, paraquat, and maneb, have since been studied as potential causative or at least risk factors in PD models and in epidemiological studies.118 However, only limited human postmortem data have been gathered so far. Fleming et al119 screened postmortem brain samples from PD patients and control cases for 16 organochloridc pesticides. They found a positive association of PD and pesticide concentrations for only Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical one pesticide, dieldrin, a lipid-soluble mitochondrial
poison. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These results were replicated by another group in separate studies with regard to increased dicldrin concentration in PD brain.120-122
However, the mode of action of this pesticide strongly supports current, concepts of oxidative stress and mitochondrial energy impairment, as an important factor in PD pathogenesis. Interestingly, the pesticides dicldrin, paraquat, and rotenone, which are all Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical complex I inhibitors, have been shown to induce an acceleration of α-synuclein fibril formation in vitro, and thus likely Lewy body formation.123 Infection The idea of a putative role of infectious agents in the etiology of PD can be traced back to 1918, when postencephalitic parkinsonism due to influenza A infection was widespread in Europe. Many decades later, observations of sporadic PD suggest that. LBs harbor viral and bacterial signatures.124 A very recent study has convincingly shown that Nocardia astéroïdes 16S rRNA is present, in LBs from PD patients and points to a role in bacterial infection in protein aggregation.125 Sclareol These findings, however, need to be confirmed in larger samples. The same authors also showed that one out of two cynomolgus monkeys infected with N. astéroïdes developed intracellular inclusion bodies (immunoreactivc for α-synuclein and ubiquitin); the infected monkey also expressed rRNA for N. astéroïdes. Other viral and bacterial pathogens need to be studied in human postmortem brain tissue of PD patients using more recent virological and bacterial detection methods.