coli mutant We also examine whether the stabilized MetAs

coli mutant. We also examine whether the stabilized MetAs buy INK1197 affect the viability of protease-deficient

strains at an elevated temperature (42°C). The mutant Y229(P-) was at least 10-fold more viable than the control strain WE(P-) (Figure 4). The same result was observed for the mutant L124(P-) (data not shown). However, despite accelerated growth and increased viability, the protease-deficient mutants harboring the stabilized MetAs grew slower than the protease-positive strains WE and Y229 (Figure 4). Our findings indicate that the growth defect in the protease-null mutant strain is partially due to MetA instability. Methionine recovers the growth defect of the E. coli mutants lacking either ATP-dependent SAHA HDAC mw proteases or the DnaK chaperone Because the stabilized MetA mutants conferred an increased growth rate to ∆dnaK and protease-deficient E. coli mutants at higher temperatures, we expected that methionine supplementation might recover the growth defects of both mutants. Thus, we examined the direct effect of L-methionine supplementation on WE∆dnaK and WE(P-) growth at 37°C and 42°C, respectively. In the methionine-supplemented medium, the mutants WE∆dnaK and WE(P-) grew two- and six-fold faster, respectively,

than without L-methionine supplementation (Figure 5). For WE∆dnaK, the growth rate was 0.73 h-1 with methionine and 0.38 h-1 without methionine. For WE(P-), the growth rate was 0.58 h-1 with methionine and 0.095 h-1 without methionine (Figure 5; Additional file 5: Tables S2 and S3). The spot test confirmed the results obtained with flask-cultivation (Figure 5). L-methionine also stimulates the growth of the control strain WE at 37°C and 42°C (Figure 5; Additional file 5: Tables S2 and S3). However, the WE strain demonstrated only a 28% and 44% increase of the specific growth rates

at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, in the presence of methionine (0.77 and 0.6 h-1 at 37°C; 0.78 and 0.54 h-1 at 42°C with and without methionine supplementation, respectively; Additional file 5: Tables Phloretin S2 and S3). These results clearly indicate that an impaired methionine Capmatinib ic50 supply underlies the dnaK- and protease-null mutant growth defects. Figure 5 L-methionine stimulates growth of Δ dnaK or protease-deficient mutants of the E. coli strain WE at non-permissive temperatures. The strains were cultured in 25 ml of M9 glucose medium with or without L-methionine supplementation (50 μg/ml) in 125 ml Erlenmeyer flasks at 37°C (∆dnaK mutants) or 42°C (protease-minus mutants). The average of two independent experiments is presented. Serial dilutions of logarithmically growing at 30°C (∆dnaK mutants) or 37°C (protease-minus mutants) in M9 glucose medium cultures (OD600 of 0.5) were spotted onto M9 glucose or M9 glucose L-methionine (50 μg/ml) agar plates. The cells were incubated for 24 h at 37°C (∆dnaK mutants) or 42°C (protease-minus mutants).

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