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“A large and growing number of studies support the notion that arousing positive emotional states expand, and that arousing negative states constrict, the scope of attention on both the perceptual and conceptual levels. However, these studies have predominantly involved the manipulation or measurement of conscious emotional experiences (e.g., subjective feelings of happiness or anxiety). This raises the question: Do cues that are merely associated with benign versus threatening situations but do not elicit conscious feelings of positive or negative emotional arousal independently expand or contract attentional scope? Integrating
theoretical advances in affective neuroscience, positive psychology, and social cognition, the authors propose that rudimentary intero- and exteroceptive BAY 1895344 nmr stimuli may indeed become associated with the onset of arousing positive or negative emotional states and/or with appraisals that the environment is benign or threatening and thereby come to moderate the scope of attention in the absence of conscious emotional experience. Ferroptosis inhibitor Specifically, implicit “”benign situation”" cues are posited to broaden, and implicit “”threatening situation”" cues to narrow, the range of both perceptual and conceptual attentional selection. An extensive array of research findings involving
a diverse set of such implicit affective cues (e.g., enactment of approach and avoidance behaviors, incidental exposure to colors signaling safety vs. danger) is marshaled in support of this proposition. Potential alternative explanations for and moderators of these attentional tuning effects, as well as their higher level neuropsychological underpinnings, are also discussed along with prospective extensions to a range of other situational cues and domains of social cognitive processing.”
surrounds whether crossed and/or uncrossed fibers carry taste information from tongue to cortex and whether there is hemispheric specialization for gustatory processing. The current study examined these issues in 14 patients with unilateral insula lesions, seven with right-sided and seven with left-sided damage, and in 42 healthy controls. Olopatadine Two tasks were carried out, with tastants applied unilaterally to the tongue tip: (1) taste discrimination; and (2) stimulus sampling followed by judgments of quality, intensity, hedonics and name-recognition, for sweet, salty, bitter and sour tastants. Controls were better at discriminating tastants applied to their right tongue tip relative to their left, and better at taste quality judgments when tastants were applied to their left tongue tip relative to their right. Insula lesions to the left or right side resulted in bilateral impairments in discrimination, quality judgments and naming, when compared to controls.