Strikingly, an overall decrease in total gene expression was dete

Strikingly, an overall decrease in total gene expression was detected, which was both gradual and cumulative. DNA methylation was in part responsible for the expression downregulation of a number of genes. Genes involved in many

pathways such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways exhibited significant changes in expression. Inhibition of ERK pathway did not show dramatic effects in counteracting dedifferentiation process. BMP-2 was able to decelerate the dedifferentiation and reinforce the maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype in monolayer culture.

Conclusion: Our study not only improves our knowledge of the intricate signaling network regulating maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype, but also contributes to improved chondrocyte expansion and chondrogenic performance for cell therapy. (C) 2013 selleck chemicals llc Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study was undertaken in order to evaluate possible antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of three Helleborus taxa. The dry leaves and roots of three Helleborus taxa were extracted with ethanol and water. A phytochemical evaluation 3-MA chemical structure of the selected extracts was performed using

spectrophotometric methods and a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity assay was used for measuring the antioxidative activity of extracts. The antiproliferative activity of the three Helleborus taxa was studied using Burkitt’s lymphoma B cells (BJAB) cell lines. The phytochemical evaluation showed that the leaves contain high levels of total phenolic and flavonoid content. Results from the DPPH assay indicated that the activity of the ethanol and water extracts of the leaves was higher than that of positive control (thymol). Extracts from the roots this website of H. odorus also displayed higher antioxidant activity than

the positive probe, while H. mulifidus and H. hercegovinus root extracts were less effective. A statistically significant correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidative properties indicates that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity. The highest percentage of cell growth inhibition was observed when testing the water root extracts of H. multifidus (50.14%) and H. hercegovinus (49.04%). In contrast, the water leaf extract of H. hercegovinus exhibited the lowest inhibition of cell growth (8.59%), although it showed strong antioxidant activity.”
“Objective: Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-7 are clinically approved and their recombinant proteins are used for bone tissue regenerative purposes and widely evaluated for cartilage regeneration.

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