No scans had to be excluded for inability to obtain an accurate S

No scans had to be excluded for inability to obtain an accurate SUVmax measurement because measurements were calculated on portions of the appendix separate from adjacent bowel using small ROIs. Maximum appendiceal SUVs ranged from 0.5 to 9.4 (mean: 2.2) with an appendix-to-liver background ratio ranging from 0.3 to 3.1 (mean: 1.1). FDG uptake in the appendix is typically similar to that of background activity. However,

slight variations in appendiceal FDG uptake do occur, which should not be misinterpreted as pathological.”
“Placenta is an important source and target of hormones that contribute to immunological tolerance and maintenance of pregnancy. In preeclampsia (PE), placental calcitriol synthesis is low; whereas proinflammatory cytokines levels are increased, threatening pregnancy outcome. Previously, BMS-345541 cell line we showed that calcitriol inhibits Th-1 cytokines under experimental

inflammatory conditions in normal trophoblasts. However, a study of the regulation of inflammatory cytokines by calcitriol in trophoblasts from a natural inflammatory condition, such as PE, is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate calcitriol effects upon TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6 and YM155 mw IL-1 beta in cultured placental cells from pre-eclamptic women by using qPCR and ELISA. Placentas were collected after cesarean section from pre-eclamptic women and enriched trophoblastic preparations were cultured in the absence or presence of different calcitriol concentrations during 24 h. In these cell cultures, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion and mRNA expression were downregulated by calcitriol (P < 0.05). No significant effects of calcitriol upon IFN-gamma and IL-1 beta were observed. In addition, basal expression of TNF-alpha, selleck IL-6 and IL-1 beta decreased as the cells formed syncytia. Our study supports an important autocrine/paracrine role of placental

calcitriol in controlling adverse immunological responses at the feto-maternal interface, particularly in gestational pathologies associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses such as preeclampsia. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Acetate oxidation in Italian rice field at 50 degrees C is achieved by uncultured syntrophic acetate oxidizers. As these bacteria are closely related to acetogens, they may potentially also be able to synthesize acetate chemolithoautotrophically. Labeling studies using exogenous H-2 (80%) and (CO2)-C-13 (20%), indeed demonstrated production of acetate as almost exclusive primary product not only at 50 degrees C but also at 15 degrees C. Small amounts of formate, propionate and butyrate were also produced from (CO2)-C-13. At 50 degrees C, acetate was first produced but later on consumed with formation of CH4. Acetate was also produced in the absence of exogenous H-2 albeit to lower concentrations.

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